SDSU Undergraduate Students Learning in New Anatomy Lab
SDSU Undergraduate Students
Learning in New Anatomy Lab
Over 120 SDSU students taking Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals are already enjoying the learning experiences in the newly renovated anatomy lab space at the Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADRDL).
The new space is part of the renovated ADRDL facility completed this past summer. With the move of diagnostic services to the new addition to the north, the former ADRDL was turned into labs and classrooms for teaching in the upcoming Professional Program in Veterinary Medicine ("2+2" program) and undergraduate courses, in addition to research work.
The new anatomy lab occupies the former ADRDL necropsy room. It features the very latest in instructional technology, with cameras that can zoom in on anatomic specimens on two different tables and project onto a large video screen. New downdraft dissection tables (bottom picture above) have been installed, allowing safe and comfortable work with cadavers and other materials. Faculty members are grateful to the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine for loaning some additional specimens for veterinary anatomy.
In addition, the room will have a research function, being available for use as a necropsy floor for research projects.
Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals (known as "A and P" to students past and present) is a requirement for animal science and dairy science majors, as well as a required course for students completing the Animal Health minor. Drs. Christina Larson (lectures) and Bev Cassady (labs) are the instructors.
Dr. Tamer Sharafeldin Joins ADRDL as New Pathologist; Brings Poultry Expertise
Dr. Tamer Sharafeldin is the ADRDL's new pathologist, beginning his work at SDSU on June 1. Dr. Sharafeldin received his professional pathology training and his PhD at the University of Minnesota. While his work will include all the routine casework coming through the diagnostic lab, Dr. Sharafeldin brings a particular expertise in poultry diseases to SDSU. He has wide experience with a variety of poultry production systems including turkey and layer production as well as game birds in Minnesota and Pennsylvania. He is one of the pioneers who studied the pathogenesis and the immune response of turkey arthritis/tenosynovitis reovirus. He has a nationally recognized turkey reovirus research program that received research grants to study and develop turkey reovirus vaccines.
Tamer is working with colleagues at SDSU to expand poultry diagnostics in support of turkey and layer production systems in the upper Midwest. "The ADRDL has an already-strong reputation for diagnostics development. By submitting poultry cases to SDSU you're not only benefiting from diagnostic service from an experienced avian pathologist, but you're also helping support the development of more diagnostics here at SDSU."
Contact Dr. Sharafeldin with questions at 605-688-5171.
Approach to COVID-19 Similar to Battling Swine Pathogens
One of the most important things to understand is the concept of herd immunity. Individual animals can become immune by recovering from an earlier infection or through vaccination. Some animals cannot become immune due to their age, stress (weaning, environmental conditions), co-infections and for this group herd immunity is a crucial method of protection.
Once a certain threshold of the population is immune, herd immunity gradually eliminates a disease from a population. The term "herd immunity" implies that it must have been developed in livestock but actually it was a term first developed in the 1930s to describe a phenomena observed after a significant number of children had become infected and immune to measles, the number of new infections temporarily decreased, including among susceptible children. It was soon realized. Read the article by Dr. Chris Chase (National Hog Farmer).
The outbreak of African Swine Fever in China and other countries has swine producers and veterinarians on edge about the possibility of an incursion into the US swine herd. Since early detection is critical to efforts to contain such a disease, the USDA is partnering with the swine industry, states, and veterinary diagnostic labs on an ASF surveillance effort.
Testing for ASF will focus on high-risk animals, which includes sick pig submissions to veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Diagnostic submissions of pigs with certain clinical or post-mortem signs are eligible; both ASF and Classical Swine Fever tests will be performed at the same time. Negative results will be reported to the submitter, and there is no cost to the client for this test; charges are paid by the USDA.
South Dakota ADRDL Fulfills Need for Human COVID-19 Testing
South Dakota State University students can know within 24 to 48 hours whether they are positive for COVID-19, thanks to Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory on campus at the South Dakota Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory on campus.
ADRDL director Jane Christopher Hennings said, “Diagnosing COVID-19-positive individuals as soon as possible is an essential part of slowing the virus spread.” ADRDL, which has both biosafety level 2 and 3 laboratories, is one of more than 20 laboratories in the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Animal Health Laboratory Network certified to do human testing to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.
The One Health Laboratory uses the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, test, the same test the South Dakota Department of Health performs to diagnose COVID-19. Thus far, One Health has met COVID-19 testing needs for SDSU’s Student Health Clinic and Counseling Services, but the laboratory is available to support the South Dakota Department of Health’s testing efforts, if needed.
“Our scientists run about 200,000 PCR tests every year on animals alone, so we are used to doing this type of high complexity, high throughput testing,” Hennings said. ADRDL scientists have played a key role in diagnosing animal disease outbreaks, such as the highly pathogenic avian influenza and porcine coronaviruses.
ADRDL Welcomes Lisa Ulvestad as Office Supervisor
Lisa Ulvestad is the new Supervisor in the ADRDL's Receiving Office, starting her duties on December 14. As Office Supervisor, Lisa's duties include ensuring samples are properly routed to the testing sections, communicating results to clients, invoicing, shipping, and customer service.
With her new position at the ADRDL, Lisa is getting back to her veterinary roots. She has an Associates Degree in Animal Health Technology from Minnesota-Waseca and worked as a technician at veterinary clinics in Watertown and Estelline. In addition, she has experience with laboratory service and office supervision at Midwest Seed Services, the SDSU Soil Testing Lab, and most recently SDSU's Agronomy, Horticulture, and Plant Science Department. Lisa has lived in the Brookings area her entire life and is excited to interact with users of the lab. Welcome, Lisa to the ADRDL!
BVDV Persistent Infection, Novel Bosavirus Characterized in Bison through SDSU Work
As part of an investigation of reproductive losses in an American bison herd, faculty and staff at SDSU's ADRDL characterized for the first time persistent infection with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), as well as a novel bosavirus in bison.
Following reproductive problems in a bison herd during the 2018-19 calving season, investigators collected samples from the breeding herd as well as 4 animals with failure to thrive. Serology, virus isolation, metagenomic sequencing, and pathology was performed.
All 26 animals examined serologically had titers to BVDV Type 1 (range 1:512 to 1:8192, with 17 with titers greater than 1:1000) and BVDV Type 2 (range 1:64 to 1:8192, with 7 greater than 1:1000), despite the lack of recent BVDV vaccination. Metagenomic sequencing on pooled nasal swabs and serum identified co-infection of BVDV and bovine bosavirus. The BVDV genome was most similar to the BVDV type 1a vaccine strain Oregon C24V with 92.7% identity in the coding region. Bosavirus was also identified but its clinical significance is unknown.
Pathology examination did not reveal any gross lesions. On histopathology, two BVDV positive animals had lymphoid depletion in the ileo-cecal valve lymphoid region. A female PI bison had a decrease in primary follicles in the ovary, and a male PI bison showed evidence of decreased spermatogenesis in the testes.
Serum from these same animals collected two months later remained positive for BVDV and bosavirus, with one animal co-infected with both BVDV and bosavirus. These results suggest that both viruses can persistently infect bison. While the etiological significance of bosavirus infection is unknown, the ability of BVDV to persistently infect bison has implications for BVDV control and eradication programs.
Investigators from SDSU on the project included Drs. Angela Pillatzki, Ben Hause and Chris Chase. They can be contacted at 605-688-5171 for more information.
Dr. Jessie Juarez Begins Work as PPVM Faculty Coordinator
SDSU's new Professional Program in Veterinary Medicine has its first faculty coordinator, Dr. Jessica Juarez. Dr. Juarez comes to SDSU from Iowa State University, where she was a clinical assistant professor and lecturer in the College of Veterinary Medicine.
A native of Nebraska who grew up in rural southwest Iowa, Jessie completed her BS, MS, and DVM degrees from Iowa State. Upon graduation, she worked as an associate in a 9-veterinarian food animal practice in Waupun, WI, where she focused on embryo transfer, herd health, ultrasound, and surgery before beginning her career in academic veterinary medicine.
At Iowa State, Dr. Juarez taught in the Animal Science and Dairy Science Departments before bringing her talents to the College of Veterinary Medicine in 2019. At the vet school, she coordinated the Clinical Skills Laboratory and taught a wide variety of courses in the professional curriculum.
Dr. Juarez brings to SDSU an interest in advising and recruiting students into veterinary medicine, international veterinary medicine and animal health, organized veterinary medicine, and using models and simulations to teach veterinary students. She will be heavily involved with the admissions process, as well as teaching and coordinating faculty for the new PPVM program being organized with the University of Minnesota. Welcome, Dr. Juarez, to SDSU!
Rachel Runge Joins ADRDL's Histopathology - Tissue Prep Section
Rachel Runge recently started as the newest Lab Technician at the ADRDL, working in the Histopathology/Tissue processing Section. Rachel comes to SDSU from the Twin Cities Animal Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine Clinic in Burnsville, MN where she worked as a veterinary technician, performing physical therapy on patients and assisting veterinarians with musculoskeletal examinations, diagnostic ultrasound, injections, and radiographic imaging. A native of Watertown, MN, she received a bachelors degree at SDSU in 2005, and an Associate in Applied Science in Veterinary Technology in 2016 at the MN School of Business.
At the ADRDL, Rachel's duties include trimming in fixed tissues that then go to histopathology to be made into slides that aid pathologists in making a diagnosis on the case. She assists pathologists with trimming in tissues as well as helping in the Clinical Pathology section.
Rachel lives on a farm outside of Brookings with her husband, Jerry, two Pembroke Welsh Corgis, and a Labrador Retriever. In her spare time, she enjoys sporting clay shooting and training her dogs in herding (sheep and ducks), obedience, rally, and agility as well as hunting upland game.
Welcome, Rachel, to the ADRDL!
Prompt and Accurate Veterinary Diagnostic Services
The South Dakota Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADRDL) has served the citizens of the state and region with timely and accurate veterinary diagnostic services since 1887. A dedicated and experienced staff performs a full range of diagnostic testing services that arm veterinarians and health officials with the information they need to protect and improve animal and therefore, human health.
The staff of the ADRDL are nationally recognized for their skill in diagnosing key diseases of cattle, pigs, and other livestock. Additionally, the ADRDL supports veterinarians and caretakers of horses and companion animals, plays a vital role in identifying zoonotic diseases such as rabies, and helps to keep our food supply safe by testing food products for bacteria that may cause food-borne illness.
The ADRDL is American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians (AAVLD) accredited. In addition, the lab is an integral member of the USDA National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), a network of diagnostic laboratories across the US that help detect nationally significant animal diseases such as influenza and Foot & Mouth Disease. Expertise in detecting agents of food-borne illness is important in the ADRDL's role as a regional laboratory for the Food Emergency Response Network(FERN). Participation by the ADRDL in the FDA Veterinary Laboratory Investigation Response Network (Vet-LIRN) (hotlink this name to the link below… https://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/ScienceResearch/ucm247334.htm helps to document, investigate, and diagnose animal feed or drug related illnesses. These efforts can contribute to overall food safety as animal feed events could signal potential issues in human food. The ADRDL also contributes to the FDA Genome Trakr.
NOTE: Starting April 1, as per the AAVLD Accreditation requirements, full diagnostic laboratory reports will be sent labeled as "preliminary", indicating some results are still pending, or "final", where no test results are pending. Previously, for some cases, only the newest results were sent via e-mail or fax.
Thank you for your understanding of this requirement. If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to contact the laboratory.