Gertrude Simmons Bonnin
Gertrude Bonnin, born on the Yankton Sioux Reservation in 1876, was a Native American activist during the early 20th century. In 1926, Gertrude founded the National Council of American Indians which brought up issues regarding land and resource issues Indian people faced. She wrote stories that were critical of boarding schools that many of her people were forced to attend and the assimilation enacted upon them. Until her death in 1928, Gertrude worked for improvements in education, culture preservation, health care, and legal issues among Native Americans.
“Hilton M. Briggs Library.” South Dakota State University, https://www.sdstate.edu/hilton-m-briggs-library.
Biographies of Plains Indians: Gertrude Simmons Bonnin - 1876-1938 - American Indian Relief Council Is Now Northern Plains Reservation Aid, http://www.nativepartnership.org/site/PageServer?pagename=airc_bio_simmonsbonnin.
“Zitkala-Ša (Red Bird / Gertrude Simmons Bonnin) (U.S. National Park Service).” National Parks Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, https://www.nps.gov/people/zitkala-sa.htm.
“Bonnin, Gertrude Simmons (1876-1938), Author and Activist: American National Biography.” (1876-1938), Author and Activist | American National Biography, 16 June 2017, https://www.anb.org/view/10.1093/anb/9780198606697.001.0001/anb-9780198606697-e-1500796.
Kasebier, Gertrude. "Zitkala-Ša" Zitkala-Ša (Red Bird / Gertrude Simmons Bonnin), National Park Service, 1898, https://www.nps.gov/people/zitkala-sa.htm.