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Gertrude Simmons Bonnin

Gertrude Simmons Bonnin

Zitkala-Ša, having grown her hair back out after her stay at the missionary school, and her violin.
Zitkala-Ša, having grown her hair back out after her stay at the missionary school, and her violin.

Gertrude Bonnin, born on the Yankton Sioux Reservation in 1876, was a Native American activist during the early 20th century. In 1926, Gertrude founded the National Council of American Indians which brought up issues regarding land and resource issues Indian people faced. She wrote stories that were critical of boarding schools that many of her people were forced to attend and the assimilation enacted upon them. Until her death in 1928, Gertrude worked for improvements in education, culture preservation, health care, and legal issues among Native Americans.

Available Resource(s):

Image Citation:

Kasebier, Gertrude. "Zitkala-Ša" Zitkala-Ša (Red Bird / Gertrude Simmons Bonnin), National Park Service, 1898,  https://www.nps.gov/people/zitkala-sa.htm.