Skip to main content

EAM Publications

Publications (from 1999 - 2018)


Almusaylim K, Minett M, Binkley TL, Beare TM, Specker B. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Association between Glycemic Status and Body Composition in Men: A Population-Based StudyNutrients, 2018, 10, 1878; DOI:10.3390/nu10121878. 

Specker B, Wey HE, Minett M, Beare T. Smoking and Alcohol Use Among South Dakota American Indian and White Mothers.  Amer Jof Prevent Med 55:89-97, 2018DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2018.03.016.

Ormsbee MK, Willingham BD Marchant T, Binkley T, Specker B, Vukovich M.  Protein supplementation during a 6-month strength and conditioning program: Effect on body composition and muscular strength. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, DOI:10.1123/ijsnem.2018.0036.

McCormack L, Wey H, Meendering J, Specker B.  Differences in physical activity diet patterns between non-rural and rural adults. Nutrients 10:1601, 2018. DOI:10.3390/nu10111601.

Weidauer L, Beare T, Binkley T, Minett M, Specker B.  Longitudinal growth and pQCT measures in Hutterite children and grandchildren are associated with prevalence of hip or knee replacement due to osteoarthritis in parents and grandparents.  Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 2018.  DOI 10.1007/s11999.0000000000000197.   

Minett M, Weidauer LA, Wey HE, Binkley TL, Beare TM, Specker BL. Sports Participation in High School and College Leads to High Bone Density and Greater Rates of Bone Loss in Young Men.  Calcified Tissue International, 2018. DOI: 10.1007/s00223-017-0383-z.


Minett M, Binkley TB, Weidauer LA, Specker BL. Changes in body composition and bone of female collegiate soccer players through the competitive season and off-seasonJournal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions 17(1): 386-398, 2017.

Fuller JE, Walter EB, Dole N, O'Hara R, Herring A, Durkin M, Specker B, Wey B. State-level Immunization Information Systems:  Potential for childhood immunization data linkages.  Maternal and Child Health Journal, 2017.  DOI:  10.1007/s10995-016-2090-1.

Binkley T, Beare T, Minett M, Koepp K, Wey H, Specker B. Response to an online version of a PRAMS-like survey in South Dakota. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 2017. DOI: 10.1007/s10995-016-2118-6.


Weidauer L, McCormack L, Gorres-Martens B, Specker B. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in northern, farming and non-farming populations in the United States: Associations with parathyroid hormone, body fat and bone density.Topics in Clinical Nutrition 31(3):204-212, 2016.

Fuller JE, Walter EB, Dole N, O'Hara R, Herring A, Durkin M, Specker B, Wey B. State-level Immunization Information Systems: Potential for childhood immunization data linkages. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 2016. DOI: 10.1007/s10995-016-2090-1.

Binkley T., Specker B. The negative effect of sitting time on bone is mediated by lean mass in pubertal children. Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions 16:18-23, 2016.

McCormack L, Meendering J, Specker B, Binkley T. Associations between sedentary time, physical activity and DXA measures of total body android and gynoid fat mass. Journal of Clinical Densitometry 19:368-374, 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.jocd.2016.03.008.

Specker B, Binkley T. DXA Evaluation of Infants and Toddlers. IN: Bone Health Assessment in Pediatrics: Guidelines for Clinical Practice, 2nd edition. Fung EB, Sawyer AJ, Bachrach LK, eds. Springer, New York, 151-178, 2016.

Upadhyaya B, McCormack L, Fardin-Kia AR, Juenemann R, Nichenametla S, Clapper J, Specker B, Dey M. Gut microbial modulation by resistant starch type 4 is associated with immunometabolic improvements in adults with metabolic syndrome. Scientific Reports 6:28797, 2016. DOI: 10.1038/srep28797.


Bai W, Binkley TL, Wallace JW, Carver TW, Specker BL. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) bone measurements in children with cystic fibrosis.Pediatric Pulmonology 51:28-33, 2015.

Binkley, T., Weidauer, L., Daughters, S., Vukovich, M. Changes in body composition in Division 1 football players over a competitive season and recovery in off-season. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 29(9):2503-2512, 2015.

Munns, Shaw, Kiely, Specker, Thacher, Ozono, Michigami, Tiosano, Mughal, Makitie, Ramos-Abad, Ward, DiMeglio, Atapattu, Cassinelli, Braegger, Pettifor,Seth, Idris, Bhatia, Fu, Goldberg, Savendahl, Khadgawat, Pludowski, Maddock, Hypponen, Oduwole, Frew, Aguiar, Tulchinsky, Butler, Hogler. Global consensus recommendations on prevention and management of nutritional rickets.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 101:394-415, 2016. Published simultaneously in Hormone Research Paediatrics 85:83-106, 2016.

Bai W, Binkley TL, Wallace JW, Carver TW, Specker BL. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) bone measurements in children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatric Pulmonology 51:28-33, 2015. DOI: 10.1002/ppul.23323.

Specker BL, Thiex NW, Sudhagoni RG. Does exercise influence pediatric bone? A systematic review. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 473:3658-3672, 2015. DOI: 10.1007/s11999-015-4467-7.

Specker BL, Wey, HE, Binkley TL, Beare TM, Minett M, Weidauer L. Rural vs. non-rural differences and longitudinal bone changes by DXA and pQCT in men aged 20-66 years: A population-based study.Bone 79:79-87, 2015. DOI: 10.106/j.bone.2015.04.045.

Boyle EB, Deziel NC, Specker BL, Collingwood S, Weisel CP, Dellarco MJ. Feasibility and informative value of environmental sample collection in the National Children's Vanguard Study.Environmental Research 140:345-353, 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2015.01.006.

Weidauer L, Binkley TL, Bear TM, Minett M, McCormack L, Wey A, Specker B. Do sex differences exist in rates of falls and fractures in Hutterite, rural, and non-rural populations, aged 20-66 years?Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 473:2514-2520, 2015. DOI: 10.1007/s11999-015-4248-3.

Specker B. Nutrition in Pregnancy and Lactation. IN: Nutrition and Bone Health, 2nd edition, MF Holick and J Nieves, eds. Springer, New York, 161-182, 2015.


Weidauer L, Binkley T, Vukovich M, Specker B. Greater polar moment of inertia at the tibia in athletes who develop stress fractures. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine 2(7):2014. DOI: 10.1177/2325967114541411.

Binkley TL, Parupsky E, Kleinsasser B, Weidauer L, Specker B. Feasibility, compliance, and efficacy of a randomized controlled trial using vibration in pre-pubertal children. Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions, 14:294-302, 2014.

Weidauer L, Wey H, Slater H, Moyer-Mileur L, Specker B. Estimation of length or height in infants and young children using ulnar and lower leg length with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry validation. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 56:995-1000, 2014. DOI: 10.1111/dcmn.12491.

Binkley TL, Thiex NW, Specker B. Validation of drinking water disinfection by-product exposure assessment for rural areas in the National Children's Study. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 23:303-307, 2014. DOI: 10.1038/jes.2014.51.

Weidauer L, Minett M, Negus C, Binkley T, Vukovich M, Wey H, Specker B. Odd-impact loading results in increased cortical area and moments of inertia in collegiate athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology 114:1429-1438, 2014. DOI 10.1007/s00421-014-2870-5.

Roiger T., Weidauer L., Kern B. A longitudinal pilot study of depressive symptomology in concussed and injured, non-concussed Division 1 student athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 50(3): 256-261, 2014.

Kalkwarf H, Abrams SA, DiMeglio LA, Koo WW, Specker BL, Weiler H. Bone densitometry in infants and young children: The 2013 ISCD Pediatric Official Positions. Journal of Clinical Densitometry, 17:243-257, 2014.

Specker B, Wey B, Fuller J, Sandoval MN, Durkin M, Dole N, Walter Jr. EB. 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza immunization among pregnant women: A comparison of different sources of immunization information. Maternal Child Health Journal 18(3):681-687, 2014. DOI 10.1007/s10995-013-1293-y.

Nichenametla SN, Weidauer LA, Wey HE, Beare TM, Specker BL, Dey M. Resistant starch type 4-enriched diet lowered blood cholesterols and improved body composition in a double-blind controlled crossover intervention. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 58:1365-1369, 2014. DOI 10.1002/mnfr.201300829.


McCormack LA, Friedrich C, Fahrenwald N, Specker B.Feasibility and acceptability of alternate methods of postnatal data collection. Maternal Child Health Journal 18:52-857, 2013: DOI 10.1007/s10995-013-1310-1.

Specker B, Minett M. Can physical activity improve peak bone mass? Current Osteoporosis Reports 11:229-236, 2013: DOI 10.1007/s11914-013-0152-5.

Fahrenwald N, Wey B, Martin A, Specker B. Community outreach and engagement to prepare for household recruitment of National Children's Study participants in a rural setting. Journal of Rural Health 29(1):61-68, 2013.

Bracken MB, Baker D, Cauley JA, Chambers C, Culhane J, Dabelea D, Dearborn D, Drews-Botsch CD, Dudley DJ, Durkin M, Entwisle B, Flick L, Hale D, Holl J, Hovell M, Hudak M, Paneth N, Specker B, Wilhelm M, Wyatt S. New models for large prospective studies: Is there a risk of throwing out the baby with the bathwater? American Journal of Epidemiology 175:859-866, 2013.

Weidauer LA, Binkley TL, Specker BL. Variation in cortical density within the cortical shell of individuals across a range in densities and age. Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions 13:89-96, 2013.


Weidauer LA, Eilers MM, Binkley TL, Vukovich MD, Specker BL. Effect of different collegiate sports on cortical bone in the tibia. Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions 12(2):68-73, 2012.

McCormack LA, Binkley TL, Specker BL. Effect of level of farm mechanization early in life on bone later in life. Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions 12(1):7-15, 2012.

Gourlay ML, Specker BL, Li C, Hammett-Stabler CA, Renner JB, Rubin JE. Follicle-stimulating hormone is independently associated with lean mass but not BMD in younger postmenopausal women. Bone 50:311–316, 2012.

Sudhagoni R, Wey H, Djira G, Specker B. Longitudinal effects of fat and lean mass on bone accrual in infants. Bone 50:638-642, 2012.

Specker B. Does vitamin D during pregnancy impact offspring growth and bone?. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 71(01):38-45, 2012.


Wey H, Binkley T, Beare T, Wey C, Specker B. Cross-sectional versus longitudinal associations of lean and fat mass with pQCT bone outcomes in children. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 96(1):106-114, 2011.

Specker B, Sudhagoni R, Thiex N. Calcium Influences the Bone Response to Exercise in Children. IN: Diet, Nutrition and Bone. JJ Anderson, ed. Taylor & Francis, Chicago, 301-324, 2011.

Thiex N, Kalkwarf H, Specker B. Vitamin D Metabolism in Pregnancy and Lactation. IN: Vitamin D, 3rd ed. Feldman, Pike and Glorieux, Eds. Elsevier, Inc., 679-694, 2011.


Specker B, Wey H, Binkley T, Beare T, Smith E, Rauch F. Higher BMC and areal BMD in children and grandchildren of individuals with hip or knee replacement. Bone 46:1000-1005, 2010.

Specker B, Wey H, Smith E. Rates of bone loss in young adult males. International Journal of Clinical Rheumatology. 5(2):215-228, 2010.

Wimberly M, Michimi A, Specker B. Rural health and rural landscapes: An ecological approach to the study of obesity. Rural Connections 5(1):15-20, 2010.

Smith EP, Specker B, Korach KS. Recent experimental and clinical findings in the skeleton associated with loss of estrogen hormone or estrogen receptor activity. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 118:264-272, 2010.


Samra HA, Stevens D, Binkley T, Specker B. Determinants of bone mass and size in 7-year old former term, late-preterm, and preterm boys. Osteoporosis International 20:1903-1910, 2009.

Martin A, Beare T, Thiex NW, Holm, R, Specker, B. South Dakota's role in the National Children's Study. South Dakota Medicine, June 2009.

Wey CL, Beare T, Biskeborn K, Binkley T, Arneson L, Specker B. High bone density in young Hutterite children. Bone 44:454-460, 2009.

Dreiling K, Trushenski S, Kayongo-Male D, Specker B. Comparing household listing techniques in a rural Midwestern Vanguard Center of the National Children's Study. Public Health Nursing 26(2):192-201, 2009.


Abou Samra H, Beare T, Specker B. Pedometer readings and self-reported walking distances in a rural Hutterite population. Journal of Rural Health 24:99-100, 2008.

Grimsrud C, Binkley T, Specker B. The effect of menarcheal age on anthropometric, limb length, and bone measures in Hutterite and non-Hutterite women. American Journal of Human Biology 20:693-699, 2008.

Binkley T, Specker B. Muscle area, muscle mass and muscle power in a pre-pubertal and an elderly population. Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions 8(1):33-34, 2008.

Zemel B, Bass S, Binkley T, Ducher G, Macdonald H, McKay H, Moyer-Mileur L, Shepherd J, Specker B, Ward K, Hans, D. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography in children and adolescents: The 2007 ISCD Pediatric Official Positions. Journal of Clinical Densitometry 11:59-74, 2008.

Smith EP, Specker B, Bachrach BE, Kimbro KS, Li XJ, Young MF, Fedarko NS, Abuzzahab MJ, Frank GR, Cohen RM, Lubahn DB, Korach KS. Impact on bone of an estrogen receptor-alpha gene loss of function mutation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 93(8):3088-3096, 2008.

Binkley TL, Specker BL. Muscle-bone relationships in the lower leg of healthy pre-pubertal females and males. Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions 8(3):239-243, 2008.

Binkley TL, Berry R, Specker BL. Methods for measurement of pediatric bone. Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, 2008.

Koenig C, Wey H, Binkley T. Precision of the XCT3000 and comparison of densitometric measurements in distal radius scans between XCT3000 and XCT2000 peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Journal of Clinical Densitometry 11:575-580, 2008.


Osowski JM, Beare T, Specker B. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire for assessment of calcium and bone-related nutrient intake in rural populations. Journal of the American Dietetics Association 107:1349-1355, 2007.

Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Baron JA, Burckhardt P, Li R, Spiegelman D, Specker B, Orav JE, Wong JB, Staehelin HB, O'Reilly E, Kiel DP, Willett WC. Calcium intake and hip fracture risk in men and women: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86:1780-1790, 2007.

Abou Samra H, Specker B. Walking age does not explain term versus preterm difference in bone geometry. Journal of Pediatrics 151:61-66, 2007.

Havill LM, Mahaney MC, Binkley TL, Specker BL. Effects of genes, sex, age, and activity on BMC, bone size, and areal and volumetric BMD. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 22(5):737-746, 2007.

Specker BL, Binkley T, Vukovich M, Beare T. Volumetric bone mineral density and bone size in sleep-deprived individuals. Osteoporosis International, 18:93-99, 2007.

Specker B, Vukovich M. Evidence for an interaction between exercise and nutrition for improved bone health during growth. IN: Physical Activity, Nutrition and Bone Health During Growth. Daley, Petit (eds) Krager:Basel, 2007 51: pp 50-63.


DeJongh ED, Binkley TL, Specker BL. Fat mass gain is lower in calcium-supplemented than in unsupplemented preschool children with low dietary calcium intakes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84:1123-1127, 2006.

Specker BL. Influence of rapid growth on skeletal adaptation to exercise. Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions 6(2): 147-153, 2006.

Johannsen DL, Johannsen NM, Specker BL. Influence of parents' eating behaviors and child feeding practices on children's weight status. Obesity 14(3):431-439, 2006.

Ballard TL, Specker BL, Binkley TL, Vukovich MD. Effect of protein supplementation during a 6-month strength and conditioning program on areal and volumetric bone parameters. Bone 38:898-904, 2006.

Neiderauer CM, Binkley TL, Specker BL. Effect of truncal adiposity on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging 10(2)154-160, 2006.


Binkley T, Johnson J, Vogel L, Kecskemethy H, Henderson R, Specker B. Bone measurements by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in children with cerebral palsy. Journal of Pediatrics 147:791-796, 2005.

Kalkwarf HJ, Specker BL. Vitamin D metabolism in pregnancy and lactation. IN: Vitamin D, 2nd ed. Feldman, Pike and Glorieux, eds. Elsevier, Inc. 2005.

Specker B, Binkley T. High parity is associated with increased bone size and strength. Osteoporosis International 16:1969-1974, 2005.

Vukovich M, Specker B. Influence of physical activity on calcium and bone. IN: Calcium in Human Health. Weaver and Heaney, eds. Humana Press, Inc.: Totowa, 227-246, 2005.

Klein GL, Fitzpatrick LA, Langman CB, Beck TJ, Carpenter TO, Gilsanz V, Holm IA, Leonard MB, Specker BL. The state of pediatric bone: Summary of the ASBMR pediatric bone initiative. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 20(12):2075-2081, 2005.

Schroder BG, Griffin IJ, Specker BL, Abrams SA. Absorption of calcium from the carbonated dairy soft drink is greater than that from fat-free milk and calcium-fortified orange juice in women. Nutrition Research 25:737-742, 2005.

Specker BL, Schoenau E. Quantitative bone analysis in children: Current methods and recommendations. Journal of Pediatrics 146:726-731, 2005.

Johnson JL, Mistry VV, Vukovich MD, Hogie-Lorenzen T, Hollis BW, Specker BL. Bioavailability of vitamin D from fortified process cheese and effects on vitamin D status in the elderly. Journal of Dairy Sciences 88(7):2295-301, 2005.

Ballard TLP, Clapper JA, Specker BL, Binkley TL, Vukovich MD. Effect of protein supplementation during a 6-mo strength and conditioning program on insulin-like growth factor I and markers of bone turnover in young adults.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81: 1442-1448, 2005.


Specker B. Impact of micronutrient deficiencies on bone growth and mineralization. IN: Micronutrient Deficiencies during the Weaning Period and the First Years of Life. Zlotkin and Pettifor, eds., Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series, Vol. 54, Karger Publishing: Basel, Switzerland, 153-172. 2004.

Specker B, Binkley T, Fahrenwald N. Rural versus nonrural differences in BMC, volumetric BMD, and bone size: a population-based cross-sectional study. Bone 35:1389-1398, 2004.

Binkley T, Specker B. Increased periosteal circumference remains present 12 months after an exercise intervention in preschool children. Bone 35:1383-1388, 2004.

Specker BL. Nutrition in pregnancy and lactation. IN: Nutrition and Bone Health. Holick and Dawson-Hughes, eds. Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, 2004, pp 167-184.

Specker B. Vitamin D requirements during pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80:1740S-1747S, 2004.

Specker BL. Nutrition influences bone development from infancy through toddler years. Journal of Nutrition 134:691S-695S, 2004.

Wosje KS, Binkley TL, Kalkwarf HJ, Specker BL. Relationships between bone mass and circulating leptin concentrations in Hutterites. Bone 34:1017-1022, 2004.


Specker BL. Role of physical activity on bone mineral content in young children. Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions 3(4):338-340, 2003.

Johannsen N, Binkley T, Englert V, Niederauer G, Specker B. Bone response to jumping is site-specific in children: a randomized trial. Bone 33:533-539, 2003.

Specker B, Binkley T. Randomized trial of physical activity and calcium supplementation on bone mineral content in 3- to 5-year-old children. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 18(5):885-892, 2003.


Binkley TL, Specker BL, Wittig TA. Centile Curves for Bone Densitometry Measurements in Healthy Males and Females Ages 5-22 Yr. Journal of Clinical Densitometry 5(4):343-353, 2002.

Kalkwarf HJ, Specker BL. Bone mineral changes during pregnancy and lactation. Endocrine 17(1):49-53, 2002.

McKay CP, Specker BL, Chesney RW. Bone and mineral metabolism during childhood. IN: Disorders of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, 2nd edition. Coe and Favus, eds. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins: New York, 2002, pp. 360-380.

Chesney RW, Specker BL, McKay CP. Mineral metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. IN: Disorders of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, 2nd edition. Coe and Favus, eds. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins: New York, 2002, pp. 347-359.

Specker BL. Are Activity and Diet Really Important for Children's Bones? Nutrition Today 37(2):44-49, 2002.

Specker BL. Determinants of bone mineral content in children. IN: Calcium in Childhood. Annales Nestle, Vol. 60, 2002, pp. 94-105.

Specker BL. The role of calcium in bone health in childhood. Osteoporosis Japan 10:11-16, 2002.

Finn K, Johannsen N, Specker B. Factors associated with physical activity in preschool children. Journal of Pediatrics 140(1):81-85, 2002.


Adler M, Specker B. Atypical diets in infancy and early childhood. Pediatric Annals 30(11):673-680, 2001.

Specker B. Editorial: The significance of high bone density in children. Journal of Pediatrics 139(4):473-475, 2001.

Neil Johannsen at the Experimental Biology Annual Meeting in San Diego in 2000

Specker BL, Johannsen N, Binkley T, Finn K. Total body bone mineral content and tibial cortical bone measures in preschool children. Journal of Bone Mineral Research 16(12):2298-2305, 2001.

Wosje KS, Binkley TL, Specker BL. Comparison of bone parameters by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography in Hutterite vs. Non-Hutterite women aged 35-60 years. Bone 29(2):192-197, 2001.

Kattelmann KK, Ho M, Specker BL. Effect of timing of introduction of complementary foods on iron and zinc status of formula fed infants at 12,24 and 36 months of age. Journal of American Dietetic Association 101(4):443-447, 2001.

Morrison JA, Guo SS, Specker B, Chumlea WC, Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA. Assessing the body composition of 6-17 year-old black and white girls in field studies. American Journal of Human Biology 13:249-254, 2001.

Wosje KS, Specker BL, Giddens J. No differences in growth or body composition from age 12 to 24 months between toddlers consuming 2% milk and toddlers consuming whole milk. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 101(1):53-56, 2001.

Specker BL, Namgung R, Tsang RC. Bone Acquisition In Utero and During Infancy and Childhood (Chapter 24). IN: Osteoporosis, edited by R Marcus, D Feldman, J Kelsey. Academic Press, San Diego, pg 599-620, 2001.

Specker B, Wosje K. A Critical Appraisal of the Evidence Relating Calcium and Dairy Intake to Bone Health Early in Life. IN: Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis, edited by Burkhardt, Dawson-Hughes, Heaney. Academic Press, San Diego, pg 107-123, 2001.


Wosje K, Specker B. Role of calcium in bone health during childhood. Nutrition Reviews 58:253-268, 2000.

Finn KJ, Specker B. Comparison of Actiwatch® activity monitor and Children's Activity Rating Scale in children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32(10):1794-1797, 2000.

Wosje KS, Binkley TL, Fahrenwald NL, Specker BL. High bone mass in a female Hutterite population. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 15(8):1429-1436, 2000.

Whitaker RC, Deeks CM, Baughcum AE, Specker BL. The relationship of childhood adiposity to parent body mass index and eating behavior.Obesity Research 8(3):234-240, 2000.

Binkley T, Specker B. pQCT measurement of bone parameters in young children: Validation of a technique. Journal of Clinical Densitometry 3(1):9-14, 2000.

Specker BL. Should there be a Dietary Guideline for calcium intake?American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71:661-664, 2000. 

Henderson CJ, Specker BL, Sierra RI, Campaigne BN, Lovell DJ. Total body bone mineral content in non-corticosteroid-treated postpubertal females with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.Arthritis & Rheumatism 43:531-540, 2000.


Specker B. Why does my baby need vitamin D? IN: Answers to More than 500 Questions You're Likely to Hear About Infant Nutrition. Edited by R.C. Tsang. Wyeth Nutritionals, Philadelphia, 1999.

Specker B. The vegetarian family. IN: Answers to More than 500 Questions You're Likely to Hear About Infant Nutrition. Edited by R.C. Tsang. Wyeth Nutritionals, Philadelphia, 1999.

Specker B.L. Factors affecting bone mass in infants and toddlers. IN: Nutrition and Bone Development, edited by J.P. Bonjour and R.C. Tsang. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series, Vol. 41, Vevey/Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, 1999.

Specker B.L., Mulligan L., Ho M. Longitudinal study of calcium intake, physical activity and bone mineral content in infants 6 to 18 months of age.Journal of Bone Mineral Research 14:569-576, 1999.

Kalkwarf H.J., Specker, B.L., Ho M. Effects of calcium supplementation on calcium homeostasis and bone turnover in lactating women.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism 84(2): 464-470, 1999.