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Section 1 General Plan

Section 1 - General Plan Information

1.1 Introduction

The Emergency Management Plan (plan) for South Dakota State University (SDSU) is modeled after:

  • Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101 – Version 2.0 November 2010;
  • NFPA 1600, Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs 2010 Edition; and
  • Federal Emergency Management Association (FEMA) 443 – Building a Disaster Resistant University.

The Plan is accessible on the university emergency management website. (Placed upon final approval)

1.2 Record of Changes

The emergency management specialist is responsible for distributing all revised or updated planning documents to all departments, agencies and individuals tasked in those documents.

Date of ChangeChange(s) Entered ByDate EnteredSummary of Changes

1.3 Authority

The plan meets or exceeds applicable legislation, policies, regulatory requirements and directives.


  1. National Incident Management System;
  2. National Response Framework;
  3. National Strategy for Homeland Security;
  4. Nuclear/Radiological Incident Annex of the National Response Plan;
  5. Federal Emergency Management Association (FEMA) 443 – Building a Disaster Resistant University;
  6. NFPA 1600 - Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs;
  7. The Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act; and
  8. American Disabilities Act (ADA) 1990 – Title II, Chapter 7 pertaining to Emergency Planning.

State of South Dakota

  1. South Dakota State Legislation - SDCL §1-50-1. State emergency response commission;
  2. South Dakota Board of Regents Policy Guidelines; and
  3. State of South Dakota Emergency Management Handbook.

South Dakota Codified Law (SDCL)

  1. SDCL § 34-48A; Emergency Management;
  2. SDCL § 34-48A-3; Coordination with Federal Government – Cooperation with other agencies; and
  3. SDCL § 34-48A-11; Preparation of comprehensive plan – coordination with Federal Plan.
  4. State of South Dakota Bureau of Administration – Office of Risk Management:
    1. Risk Manual; Section I: The Risk Management Process in South Dakota


  1. Interagency local Agreements & Contracts;
  2. Interagency participation and training;
  3. SDCL § 34-48A-36 to 34-48A-40; Brookings County Emergency Management;
  4. The City of Brookings (Police and Fire); and
  5. Brookings County Pandemic Plan.

1.4 Purpose

The Emergency Management Plan (hereafter "plan") guides the coordinated planning and response to man-made and naturally occurring potential and active threats to SDSU. The plan does not replace procedures for law enforcement, safety, hazardous material response or other established operating procedures. It supplements existing procedures with an emergency management structure that provides a process to mitigate and prepare for, respond to and recover from an incident. This plan describes and designates roles and responsibilities for university personnel during emergency situations. It provides procedures intended to prevent loss before incidents, protect lives and property during incidents, restore the university to normal operation after incidents and establish guidelines and resources for communicating effectually with the campus community and public.

General university response protocols are available in the Emergency Action Guides for Staff and Students. This information is available as a flip chart and is also located in the appendix to this plan and on Emergency Management.

Plans for tactical responses, such as bomb threats and active shooter responses are kept and maintained by the University Police Department (UPD).

The plan is an all-hazards plan and contains concepts, policies, and procedures that are applicable regardless of the cause or size of a real or potential incident. The plan is flexible, scalable and based on reasonable worst-case scenarios. It identifies critical emergency management principles, functions and roles and assigns them to responsible departments and individuals within the university.

An all-hazards plan means that regardless of the incident or threat to the university, the overarching emergency management principles do not change. What changes are the activities undertaken to mitigate, respond to and recover from an incident are specific to the incident. The responsibility for the management of an incident does not change. It remains the responsibility of the EMT under the guidance of its chair.

There does not have to be a direct threat to the community for the EMT to become involved. Twenty-thousand fans at a football game is not an inherent risk to the university. However, we can agree that 20,000 people at a football game does present some level of risk. Football games and other large-crowd events should be considered as a topic for discussion by the EMT to identify risks and implement mitigation activities and to assure proper response protocols are in place.

The plan and associated responsibilities are consistent with the Incident Command System (ICS), a management structure adopted throughout the U.S. and international communities. It also draws from Emergency Planning Guidance, the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and various U.S. Department of Homeland Security Presidential Decision Directives.

1.5 Emergency Management Phases

The plan is based upon the FEMA defined phases of emergency management, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.


Mitigation includes measures taken to reduce the potential for loss and limit or control the consequences, extent or severity of an incident that cannot be reasonably prevented.

Mitigation at SDSU occurs as part of comprehensive emergency management processes. Mitigation is intended to eliminate hazards, reduce the probability of hazards or lessen the consequences of unavoidable hazards. Mitigation activities can be conducted pre and post-event as well as during the event. Mitigation activities include:

  • Identification of potential man-made and natural disasters that put the university at risk;
  • Identification of normal activities that provide some level of risk to the university such as a large-venue event;
  • Identification of at risk personnel, processes and facilities and the potential for loss as a result of the identified risk; and
  • Identify areas of responsibility for general and specific mitigation activities.

Additional mitigation information is available in the plan Appendix.


Preparedness is focused on the development of plans and capabilities for effective emergency response.

Preparedness activities are conducted to develop the response capabilities needed in the event of an emergency or preplanned event that provides the potential for loss or harm to the university. Preparedness is everyone’s responsibility. Colleges, departments and offices must develop plans and procedures to assist in the overall implementation and maintenance of emergency plans. Activities included in the emergency management program are:

  • Identifying threats;
  • Identifying existing resources and capabilities;
  • Identifying and procuring necessary resources and capabilities;
  • Providing emergency equipment and facilities;
  • Conducting or arranging appropriate training for emergency responders, emergency management personnel, other local officials and volunteer groups who assist the university during emergencies; and
  • Conducting periodic drills and exercises to test emergency plans and training.


Response operations are intended to resolve a situation while minimizing casualties and property damage. Response activities include:

  • Applying an all-hazards approach to proactive emergency response planning and preparation;
  • Demonstrating efficient use of NIMS and ICS processes;
  • Using the EMT/Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to support and guide the university's response to an incident; and
  • Providing effective emergency communications with the community.


Recovery activities consist of activities that maintain or restore critical institutional functions activities that continue beyond the initial response period to maintain or restore critical community functions and manage reconstruction. Recovery operations are likely to overlap response activities.

Using continuity of operations planning, university personnel will carry out a recovery program that involves both short-term and long-term efforts. Short-term operations seek to maintain or restore vital services to the university community. Long-term recovery focuses on restoring the university to its normal state.

Detailed planning and execution is required for each plan phase. Phases often overlap as there is no clearly defined boundary where one phase ends and another begins. Successful emergency management coordinates activities in all four phases. The identification of essential university functions in an emergency is important in all phases of emergency planning. The prioritization of the essential emergency functions is predicated on the following list of activities that:

  • Provide for the safety and welfare of university employees, students and visitors;
  • Maintain critical business, finance and infrastructure operations;
  • Preserve critical research; and
  • Maintain/restore the ability to provide academic instruction.


While not officially an emergency management phase, demobilization is an important aspect of emergency management and occurs during all official phases. Demobilization refers to the return of personnel and equipment to normal service and begins when the resources are requested and entered into service and is concluded when all resources are returned or otherwise accounted for as an incident expense.

1.6 Emergencies/levels of response and activation (See Emergency Levels in Section 3.4 for full details)

Level 0 – (Normal Conditions):

Normal Conditions are defined as localized campus incidents that may quickly be resolved with internal resources and/or limited assistance from the initial responders. A level 0 may result in minor injuries to members of the campus community and may only affect a single localized area of the campus. Most normal campus operations are not disrupted. The EMT chair would not need to be notified unless there is the potential for the emergency to escalate. Emergency Management Team would not be activated.

Level 1 - (Minor Incident):

A Minor Incident is defined as a local event with limited impact. It does not affect the overall functional capability of the University. Planning and response are handled by normal University services. Does not pose an immediate threat to life and/or property. The EMT chair would not need to be notified immediately unless there is the potential for the emergency to escalate. Timely notification to the EMT chair is suggested.

Level 2 – (Major Incident):

A Major Incident is defined as a serious event that affects an entire building and disrupts the operation of the University. Timeliness of notification is determined by the responding official immediate or as time permits. Level 2 incidents may require assistance from external organizations. These incidents may escalate quickly and have serious consequences for mission-critical functions, or may threaten life safety. EMT chair is notified immediately and partial/full activation of the EMT.

Level 3 – (Disaster):

A major disaster or imminent threat involving the entire campus and/or surrounding community. Immediate notification is mandatory. Normal University operations are reduced or suspended. The effects of the emergency are wide-ranging and complex. A timely resolution of disaster conditions requires University-wide cooperation and extensive coordination with external agencies and jurisdictions. EMT activation is required to report to the Emergency Operations Center.

1.7 Planning Assumptions

Emergency plans are based on best practices under reasonable worst-case conditions. Some of these conditions/assumptions are:

  • Emergencies may occur day or night with or without warning;
  • Critical lifeline utilities may be interrupted, including water delivery, electrical power, natural gas, telephone communications, radio systems, cellular telephones and other information systems;
  • Regional and local municipal or county emergency services may not be available to assist the university;
  • Major roads, overpasses, bridges and local streets may be damaged;
  • Campus buildings may be damaged;
  • Damage may cause injuries and displacement of people;
  • Normal suppliers may not be able to deliver materials;
  • Contact with families and households of the university community may be interrupted;
  • People may become stranded on-campus, because conditions may be unsafe off-campus;
  • Emergency conditions that affect campus will likely affect the surrounding communities;
  • The university may not receive outside assistance and will need to conduct its own situation analysis and deployment of on-site resources and management of emergency operations on campus, through the EOC while emergency conditions exist; and
  • Maintaining, restoring and effective usage of communications is a high priority of the EMT.

1.8 Plan Activation

The plan identifies the process for emergency planning and response activation, including:

  • EMT notification and activation;
  • Emergency Operations Center (EOC) activation;
  • President and provost notification; and
  • Community notification.

1.9 Review and Maintenance

The EMT is responsible for the review and maintenance of the plan, including any appendices. The emergency management specialist has specific responsibility for maintaining the plan at the direction of the EMT. All substantive changes to the plan require the approval of the president.


This plan and its appendices shall be reviewed annually by all appropriate university officials. The EMT establishes the schedule for plan review and assign review/revision responsibilities to appropriate team members.

Interim revisions will be made when one of the following occurs:

  • A change in university site or facility configuration that materially alters the information contained in the plan or materially affects implementation of the plan;
  • A material change in response resources;
  • An emergency occurs that requires a review;
  • Internal assessments, third-party reviews or experience in drills or actual responses identify significant changes that should be made in the plan identify significant changes that should be made in the plan;
  • New laws, regulations or internal policies are implemented that affect the contents or the implementation of the plan; and
  • Other changes deemed significant.

Update and Maintenance

The plan is updated to address risks or potential risks faced when a change is required by law or external governing body, or change in internal structure.

This plan and its appendices must be revised or updated with a formal change at least every five (5) years. Responsibility for revising or updating this plan is assigned to the emergency management specialist.

1.10 Plan Distribution

Listed below are the individuals with access to the plan. The emergency management specialist is responsible for distributing any revisions to those individuals in possession of the plan.



EMT MembersIndividual
Shared drive (Password protected)IT
Web for nonrestricted portion of planMarketing and Communications