The objective of this task will create real-time precision agriculture sensor systems that can be used to detect changes in temperature, CO2, NO3-N, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, moisture and electrical conductivity (EC). This information can be used to calculate improvements in porosity, water flow, potential nutrient stresses and yield potential. Ground-based sensors linked to aerial remote sensing can be used to provide comprehensive information on the fate of the seed from planting to harvest. To achieve this objective, novel sensors, sensor networks and their integration into drones and/or swarms with real time mapping and monitoring capability will be developed. Non-contact sensing systems using high resolution camera, infrared, thermal, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and multispectral sensors will be developed. This allows direct visibility over the health of soil and crops by viewing parameters such as sunlight absorption rates, transpiration rates, crop health, CO2 content, temperature, moisture, soil variation and health status.