Yogurts are fermented products that are produced by the lactic fermentation of heated milk. Proteins are the structural building blocks of fermented food like yogurts. The texture and viscosity of yogurt can be manipulated in a variety of ways.
SDSU researchers have reported a new process technology for preparation of set or stirred yogurt using one or both of the following treatment, which includes treatment of use of milk proteins with carbon dioxide, referred to as functional milk proteins (FMP). The treatment may consist either or both of the following:
- Treatment of milk protein with carbon dioxide followed by membrane filtration and/or
- Partial replacement of the total milk protein in the yogurt milk with carbon dioxide treated FMP to formulate the yogurt milk which is followed by heat treatment and acidification of yogurt milk using either lactic acid bacteria or chemical acidulants to a pH necessary for gelation of milks and turn into yogurt.
Yogurt made from carbon dioxide treated milk proteins (FMP) has several advantages over various processes currently practiced in the yogurt industry. Use of this technology yields the yogurts with significantly higher G’, better firmness, viscosity, body and texture compared to non-treated milk. The milk proteins treated using carbon dioxide are more functional and help to reduce the need for stabilizers and hydrocolloids. Thus, this process will provide clean label products at low cost without compromising the taste or texture of yogurt. The process can also decrease the time required for gelation of yogurt milk and increase the gelation pH required for yogurt milk resulting in increased efficiency in manufacturing to produce yogurt with a longer shelf life and less acidic taste. The treatment can also change the buffering capacity of yogurt milk which can decrease the fermentation time during manufacturing, which will help to increase the throughput of the plant.