Cancer metastasis is the cause of cancer proliferation and treatment failure. Methods to treat metastatic cancer are needed, as few are available. SDSU has developed a liposome glutathione disulfide (GSSG) that can deliver GSSG into cells. GSSG, which cannot normally pass through the cell membrane, is an endogenous compound and an indicator for cellular oxidative stress.
The developed GSSG liposomes are not only able to deliver the GSSG into the cells, but also able to inhibit cancer metastasis. Results demonstrate that the GSSG liposomes can inhibit metastasis of all four human cancer cell lines tested (lung cancer, prostate cancer, ovarian cancer and colon cancer). The GSSG liposomes have demonstrated the potential for treating metastatic cancer. The GSSG liposomes can also be used as a tool to deliver GSSG into cells to study the impact of GSSG on cellular functions that are not well studied due to a lack of a method to deliver GSSG into the cell.
GSSG is normally not able to pass through the cell membrane and, therefore, normally acts upon the cell membrane through interactions with the cell surface. The GSSG liposomes can effectively deliver GSSG into the cells. Early studies have shown the GSSG within the cells can produce anti-metastatic and anti-cancer effects. Further, the GSSG liposomes can be utilized to study the effect of GSSG on cellular functions.