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2011 Eastern South Dakota Water Conference Program

2011 Water Management

In Extreme Conditions

October 13, 2011

Student Union, SDSU

Brookings, SD  57007


 

Sponsoring Organizations

East Dakota Water Development District
Water Resources Institute at South Dakota State University
Water and Environmental Engineering Research Center
United States Geological Survey

Organizing Committee

South Dakota State University

Van Kelley (Van.Kelley@sdstate.edu)
Jeppe Kjaersgaard (Jeppe.Kjaersgaard@sdstate.edu)
Christopher H. Hay (Christopher.Hay@sdstate.edu)
Dennis Todey (Dennis.Todey@sdstate.edu)
David Clay (David.Clay@sdstate.edu)
Nels Troelstrup (Nels.Troelstrup@sdstate.edu)
Suzette Burckhard (Suzette.Burckhard@sdstate.edu)
Delvin DeBoer (Delvin.Deboer@sdstate.edu)
Trista Koropatnicki (Trista.Koropatnicki@sdstate.edu)
Mary O’Neill (Mary.Oneill@sdstate.edu)
Kevin Dalsted (Kevin.Dalsted@sdstate.edu)
Kurt Reitsma (Kurtis.Reitsma@sdstate.edu)
Todd Trooien (Todd.Trooien@sdstate.edu)

U.S. Geological Survey

Mark Anderson (manders@usgs.gov)
Ryan Thompson (rcthomps@usgs.gov)

East Dakota Water Development District

Jay Gilbertson (edwdd@brookings.net)

South Dakota School of Mines and Technology

Arden D. Davis (Arden.Davis@sdsmt.edu)

University of South Dakota

Tim Cowman (Tim.Cowman@usd.edu)

North Dakota State University

Roxanne Johnson (Roxanne.M.Johnson@ndsu.edu)


About the Conference

This program has been produced in conjunction with the 2011 Eastern South Dakota Water Conference, held at the University Student Union on the campus of South Dakota State University on October 13, 2011. The purpose of this program is to provide summaries of the presentations made during the conference. The purpose of the 2011 Eastern South Dakota Water Conference is to bring together researchers from Federal, State, University, local government, and private organizations and provide a forum to discuss current topics dealing with water and water quality in South Dakota. This conference provides an opportunity for hydrologists, geologists, engineers, legislators, scientists, students, and other interested individuals to meet and exchange ideas, summarize results of studies, discuss mutual problems, and potential solutions.

 

Acknowledgements

Many people have contributed to this conference. The many presenters are thanked for their contributions. The moderators are thanked for their help in streamlining the technical sessions. We also wish to thank our invited speakers. Mike Wireman works for the US EPA in Denver, Colorado and has more than 25 years of experience in groundwater investigations including an in-depth study of the Big Sioux Watershed. Kevin Grode is the Reservoir Regulation Team Lead in the Missouri Basin Water Management Division of the US Army Corps of Engineers in Omaha, NE. Mark Rath is a Natural Resources Engineering Specialist at the Department of Environment and Natural Resources in Pierre, SD.

Finally, we would like to thank the volunteers and helpers who helped make the conference. Your efforts and help is most appreciated.  


University Student Union
South Dakota State University

 

Map of SDSU University Student Union


Thursday, October 13, 2011

 

8:00 AM-3:30 PM       Registration, Volstorff Lounge

8:30-8:45 AM             Welcome – Dr. Barry Dunn, Dean of Agricultural & Biological Sciences, 
                                                      Volstorff Ballroom 101B
 

8:45-9:30 AM             Keynote Speaker, Mike Wireman, Volstorff Ballroom 101B

The Occurrence of Nitrate in Groundwater and the Connection to Nutrient Loading to Surface Water

9:30-10:00 AM           Break - Volstorff Lounge

10:00-11:30 AM         Concurrent Sessions 1 and 2 –
                                   Wetlands and Water Management Tools & Models

 

Concurrent Session 1

Wetlands

Volstorff Ballroom 101A
Moderator: Mary O’Neill

Concurrent Session 2

Water Management Tools & Models

Volstorff Ballroom 101B
Moderator: Kurt Reitsma

10:00-10:20

Nancy McIntyre

Prioritization of Wetlands for Conservation on the Great Plains: An Approach Using Graph Theory to Examine Habitat Connectivity in a Changing Climate

Mark T. Anderson

Lake Levels in Northeastern South Dakota Reach Historical Maximum Elevations in 2011

10:20-10:40

Janet H. Gritzner

Characterizing Wetland Catchments in the Prairie Pothole Region

Jeremy Hinke

Dakota Water Watch: Engaging Volunteers in Water Quality Monitoring

10:40-11:00

Kevin Luebke

Wetlands and Us: Nuisance Low Spots, Habitat, Duck Hunting, or More

Ryan F. Thompson

StreamStats for South Dakota—A U.S. Geological Survey Web Application for Stream Information

11:00-11:20

Bruce Millett

Model Simulations of Climate and Wetland Types

Ron  Wiederholt

North Dakota Discovery Farms:  An Adaptive Management Water Quality Monitoring Project


11:30-12:15 PM          Lunch - Campanile Room 169A

12:15-12:45 PM          Plenary Speaker, Kevin Grode, Campanile Room 169A

Regulation of the Missouri River Mainstem Reservoir System

12:45-1:15 PM            Plenary Address, Mark Rath, Campanile Room 169A

The effects of flooding along the Missouri River

1:15-2:45 PM              Plenary Session 3 - Agricultural Drainage Water Management

 

Plenary Session 3

Agricultural Drainage Water Management

Campanile Room 169A
Moderator: Chris Hay

1:15-1:35

Ron Wiederholt

On-Farm Tile Drainage Water Quantity and Quality Monitoring Results

1:35-1:55

Dr. Jeff Strock

Drainage Water Management to meet Agronomic and Environmental goals

1:55-2:15

Sharon K. Papiernik

Effect of surface inlet type on suspended sediment transported through a subsurface drain tile system

2:15-2:35

Laura Christianson

Denitrification bioreactors for agricultural drainage: Internal hydraulics and dynamics

2:45-3:30 PM              Refreshment Break and Poster Session. Student Poster Competition                                                            Volstorff Lounge

3:30-5:00 PM              Concurrent Sessions 4 and 5 – Water Management and Urban Water

 

 

Concurrent Session 4
Water Management

Volstorff Ballroom 101A
Moderator: Todd Trooien

Concurrent Session 5
Urban Water

Volstorff Ballroom 101B
Moderator: Tyler Hengen

3:30-3:50

Jay Gilbertson

County Management of Rural Drainage in South Dakota

Jason Love

Water-quality trading within the central big Sioux River

3:50-4:10

Xinhua Jia

Controlled Drainage and Subirrigation Effect on Crop Production and Water Quality

Jason Love

MPCA’s watershed based approach and the role of watershed models

4:10-4:30

Boris Shmagin

Missouri River Watershed: the Object for Hydrological Studies and Uncertainty of Models

 

Tyler Hengen

Life cycle assessment analysis of engineered stormwater control methods common to urban South Dakota watersheds

4:30-4:50

Dennis Todey
Impacts of Precipitation Changes on the Large Scale Water Balance in the Northern Great Plains

 

Sudhir Kumar

A green approach for industrial herbal waste management and its bioremediation


Keynote Speaker
Volstorff Ballroom 101B

8:45 AM – 9:30 AM

The Occurrence of Nitrate in Groundwater and the Connection to Nutrient Loading to Surface Water

Mike Wireman
National Groundwater Expert
US EPA Region 8
Denver, CO

Email: Wireman.Mike@epamail.epa.gov

Michael Wireman is a hydrogeologist currently employed by the US EPA in Denver, CO, where he serves as a National Groundwater Expert.

He has a Master’s degree in hydrogeology from Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan, post MS work at the Colorado School of Mines and 25 years of experience in ground-water investigations in the Rocky Mountain west. He has served as a project manager for a private consulting firm where he directed ground-water exploration and development projects. In his current position he provides technical and scientific support to several EPA programs, other Federal agencies, International programs and ground-water protection / management programs in several western states. Mike manages research projects related to mine-site hydrology / geochemistry, ground-water sensitivity/vulnerability assessment, isotope hydrology, ground-water / surface water interaction and aquifer characterization. He has significant experience in the legal, scientific and programmatic aspects of ground-water resource management.  He also has extensive experience in ground-water related work in the Baltic countries, Ukraine, Romania and Georgia.

He has served as an adjunct professor at Metropolitan State College in Denver where he taught a class on Contaminant Hydrology and he teaches a class on fractured rock hydrology for the NGWA. He is a member of the Colorado Ground- Water Association, the National Ground Water Association, the Geological Society of America, and is the current President of the US Chapter of the International Association of Hydrogeologists.


10:00-11:30
Concurrent Session 1 – Wetlands
 Concurrent Session 2 – Water Management Tools and Models
Volstorff Ballroom 101A and 101 B

 

 

Concurrent Session 1

Wetlands
Volstorff Ballroom 101A
Moderator: Mary O’Neill

Concurrent Session 2

Water Management Tools & Models
Volstorff Ballroom 101B
Moderator: Kurt Reitsma

10:00-10:20

Nancy McIntyre

Prioritization of Wetlands for Conservation on the Great Plains: An Approach Using Graph Theory to Examine Habitat Connectivity in a Changing Climate

Mark T. Anderson

Lake Levels in Northeastern South Dakota Reach Historical Maximum Elevations in 2011

10:20-10:40

Janet H. Gritzner

Characterizing Wetland Catchments in the Prairie Pothole Region

Jeremy Hinke

Dakota Water Watch: Engaging Volunteers in Water Quality Monitoring

10:40-11:00

Kevin Luebke

Wetlands and Us: Nuisance Low Spots, Habitat, Duck Hunting, or More

Ryan F. Thompson

StreamStats for South Dakota—A U.S. Geological Survey Web Application for Stream Information

11:00-11:20

Bruce Millett

Model Simulations of Climate and Wetland Types

 

Ron  Wiederholt

North Dakota Discovery Farms:  An Adaptive Management Water Quality Monitoring Project


Prioritization of Wetlands for Conservation on the Great Plains: An Approach Using Graph Theory to Examine Habitat Connectivity in a Changing Climate

Nancy McIntyre
Texas Tech University

Email: nancy.mcintyre@ttu.edu

Wetlands provide essential ecological services including being critical sources of biodiversity in the face of continued land conversion and projected climate change.  Assessment of the role of wetlands in supporting biodiversity requires an understanding of connectivity among wetlands to facilitate migration and localized movements alike, and identification of individual wetlands important to overall connectivity of the system as an ecological network.  In collaboration with colleagues at Texas Tech University, SDSU, and Ohio State University, we are using graph (network) theory to develop a prioritized inventory of wetlands in the Great Plains (prairie potholes, Rainwater Basin wetlands, and playas) based on their value for maintaining connectivity (and thus reducing extinction risk for amphibious and aquatic wildlife).  We hope that our results can be used to provide conservation incentives and easements for those landowners with stepping-stone or hub wetlands necessary for maintaining future connectivity in this continental-scaled ecological network.


Lake Levels in Northeastern South Dakota Reach Historical Maximum Elevations in 2011

 

Mark T Anderson                                         David D. Greenlee
South Dakota Water Science Center                     Earth Resources Observation and Science Center
US Geological Survey                                                US Geological Survey

Email: manders@usgs.gov  

 

Daniel G. Driscoll
South Dakota Water Science Center
US Geological Survey

The hydroclimatic conditions in the winter and spring of 2011 in eastern South Dakota combined to raise lake levels to historical maximums in northeastern South Dakota. The high lake levels caused extensive damage to lakeside homes and the transportation grid of rural, county, and State roads.  These lake levels are one more manifestation of long-term upward trends of precipitation and streamflow conditions for the area. For example, upward trends are evident in the annual streamflow records for the James and Big Sioux Rivers in eastern South Dakota (Anderson and others, 2008). Levels in Waubay Lake in Day County reached an elevation of 1805.36 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 on July 18, 2011, exceeding the previous maximum level that occurred in 1999 by 1.36 feet. Anecdotal evidence and measurements indicate that many other lakes also reached maximum levels in 2011, such as Bitter Lake (1802.98 feet), Blue Dog Lake (1805.80), and Rush Lake (1805.75).  These lakes are within a closed basin, with Bitter Lake being the terminal lake. At an estimated elevation of about 1811 feet, water in the Waubay-Bitter Lake system would begin to flow into the Big Sioux River. Some areas of the glaciated terrain of eastern South Dakota have such low topographic relief, that comparatively small increases in lake levels can inundate large land areas. The valuable historical archive of freely available satellite imagery from the U.S. Geological Survey permits analysis of the areal extent of flooding. Landsat and France’s SPOT (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre) imagery are coupled with lake-level hydrographs to clearly depict change in land-surface inundation over time.  Image analysis will present the change in flooded acreage from minimum lake levels in 1976 to maximum levels in July 2011 for Day County. The hydroclimatic trends are indicating wetter conditions, which leaves open the possibility that lake levels may continue to rise in future years.


Characterizing Wetland Catchments In The Prairie Pothole Region
 

Janet H. Gritzner
Department of Geography
South Dakota State University

Email: janet.gritzner@sdstate.edu

GIS hydrologic modeling techniques are used to better understand surface-flow in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America. The PPR of the US and Canada is characterized by thousands of shallow, water-filled depressions with sizes ranging from a fraction of a hectare to several square kilometers with few organized drainage networks. High resolution digital elevation models are required to resolve subtle depressions of the low-lying landscape. This research uses an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR)-derived digital terrain model (DTM) and orthorectified radar imagery (ORI) as a base for developing a hydrologically-correct DEM and derivative products. This work builds on previous research piloted at two wetland complexes in Deuel County, SD. The research focuses on characterizing wetland catchment areas and looking at patterns of wetland basin connectivity.


Dakota Water Watch: Engaging Volunteers in Water Quality Monitoring
 

Jeremy Hinke
Water Resource Geologist
East Dakota Water Development District

Email: edwdd5@brookings.net

Currently in South Dakota, many lakes and streams used for swimming and boating have little to no current data regarding the health and safety of those waters.  Less than 25% of lakes in the state are routinely sampled for water quality by state, federal, and/or private agencies.  Information is also lacking on the state’s over 10,000 miles of perennial waterways and approximately 1.8 million acres of wetlands.  Dakota Water Watch is a citizen based volunteer monitoring program designed to supplement existing data, develop baseline water quality datasets, and highlight waters that may need more detailed investigations.  In addition to data generation, Dakota Water Watch helps foster community awareness and stewardship and is a vehicle through which concerned citizens can share ideas and concerns.

Dakota Water Watch began as a pilot program, conducted in 2007, which confirmed that trained volunteers with little to no previous experience could generate reliable water quality data.  The program has since evolved to offer four monitoring tracks based on the volunteer’s experience within the program and his/her desired level of commitment.  Since 2008, over 85 individuals have been directly exposed to Dakota Water Watch training.  These participants have monitored approximately 150 sites on 35 unique water bodies across South Dakota.


Wetlands and Us: Nuisance Low Spots, Habitat, Duck Hunting, or More
 

Kevin Luebke
State Biologist
NRCS - USDA

Email: kevin.luebke@sd.usda.gov

South Dakota (SD) is part of a very unique landscape known as the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR).  The PPR consists of a mosaic of wetlands and grasslands.  Wetlands in SD remain relatively undrained compared to other states in the PPR. However, both wetlands and grasslands are under threat of accelerated conversion primarily from agriculture activities.  Wetlands provide numerous functions and values.  Society may capitalize on the benefits of wetland functions by assigning societal value to wetlands and then by assisting landowners through voluntary conservation programs such as those offered by the USDA and the USFWS.


StreamStats for South Dakota—A U.S. Geological Survey Web Application for Stream Information
 

Ryan F Thompson
Hydrologist
U.S. Geological Survey

Email: rcthomps@usgs.gov

StreamStats is a Web-based stream information tool developed by the U.S. Geological Survey.  It is intended to be a national product implemented on a state-by-state basis.  A StreamStats application for South Dakota is being implemented by the U.S. Geological Survey South Dakota Water Science Center in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Transportation and East Dakota Water Development District.  StreamStats utilizes geographic information system layers, software, and databases to provide stream information at user-selected sites.  South Dakota StreamStats utilizes a 10-meter digital elevation model, which has been hydrologically enforced with drainage basin boundaries from the Watershed Boundary Dataset, and stream locations from the high-resolution National Hydrography Dataset.  Using a series of base maps, StreamStats users may zoom in and click any point of interest on a stream.  StreamStats will delineate a watershed that can be edited by the user.  StreamStats can calculate basin characteristics, such as contributing drainage area and channel slope, and utilize published regression equations to estimate peak-flow magnitudes for various recurrence intervals.  Users also may click on streamgages to view available published data including streamflow statistics, basin characteristics, and descriptive information.  This presentation will give the audience an introduction to the capabilities of South Dakota StreamStats, and highlight specific tools that may be useful for various water-resources management applications.


Model Simulations of Climate and Wetland Types
 

Bruce Millett
Department of Geography
South Dakota State University

Email: Bruce.Millett@sdstate.edu

Northern prairie wetland landscapes comprise diverse permanence types within the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). Wetlands contribute to productivity and biodiversity in glaciated prairie landscapes. A model WETLANDSCAPE (WLS) was used to simultaneously simulate wetland surface water, groundwater, and vegetation dynamics of the wetland landscape. Multiple wetland permanence types (semi-permanent, seasonal, and temporary) from the Orchid Meadows study site were used in the WLS model. Simulations projected major losses of water volume and shortening of hydroperiods for the 3 permanence types under both 2° C and 4° C warming scenarios. Model projections showed reductions in productive wetlands used by waterfowl for breeding and nesting. Wetlands in the western PPR became too dry and the most vulnerable to climate warming.  

Keywords: Prairie pothole wetlands, hydrology, numeric models, climate change, waterfowl


North Dakota Discovery Farms: An Adaptive Management Water Quality Monitoring Project

Ron Wiederholt
Nutrient Management Specialist
Carrington Research Extension Center
North Dakota State University

Email: Ron.Wiederholt@ndsu.edu

North Dakota has focused much of its water quality improvement efforts on decreasing the negative risks associated with livestock feeding area runoff.  Based on regulations and with the assistance of significant cost share dollars, producers have implemented best management practices (bmp’s) to improve livestock facility runoff management.  Unfortunately, water quality regulations and bmp’s are rarely supported by hard scientific data.  A grass-roots team of affected individuals designed and implemented an ongoing statewide intensive runoff water monitoring project to gather missing data and better understand the true impacts of farmstead runoff.  A basic tenet of the project design is that producers are expected to be the innovators to address any issues identified through water quality monitoring. Three livestock operations volunteered to allow intensive monitoring of edge of beef feedlot runoff and tile drainage impacts at the sub-watershed scale.  Successful implementation of this project was due to the up-front involvement of the producers and the complete buy-in and support by all cooperators.  This project is a cooperative effort of the producers, North Dakota State University, North Dakota Dept. of Health, and United States Geological Survey. Project results can be used by other producers, water quality practitioners, regulators and policymakers.


Plenary Speaker

12:15 PM – 12:45 PM
Campanile Room 169A

Title: Regulation of the Missouri River Mainstem Reservoir System

Kevin Grode
Reservoir Regulation Team Lead
Missouri Basin Water Management Division
US Army Corps of Engineers
Omaha, NE

Email: Kevin.R.Grode@usace.army.mil

Mr. Grode holds a Bachelors of Science degree in Civil Engineering from the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in Rapid City, SD.  He has been with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers since 1986.  Most of his tenure with the Corps has been in area of water management.  He worked in the Omaha District Water Control and Water Quality Section (1991 – 2003) as a reservoir regulator and has been in the Missouri Basin Water Management office since 2003.

In his current position, Kevin leads a team of hydraulic engineers and computer specialists to conduct studies and forecasts pertaining to the regulation of the Missouri River Mainstem Reservoir System.  This includes the update of System water control manuals and various technical studies, as well as producing short-term and long-term Missouri River basin forecasts to ensure compatibility with the System’s authorized purposes. 

 

Plenary Speaker

12:45 PM – 1:15 PM
Campanile Room 169A

Title: The Effects of Flooding Along the Missouri River

Mark Rath
Natural Resource Engineering Specialist
Water Rights
Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Pierre, SD

Email: Mark.Rath@state.sd.us

1:15-2:45
Plenary Session 3 – Agricultural Drainage Water Management
Campanile Room 169A

 

 

Plenary Session 3

Agricultural Drainage Water Management

Campanile Room 169A
Moderator: Chris Hay

1:15-1:35

Ron Wiederholt

On-Farm Tile Drainage Water Quantity and Quality Monitoring Results

1:35-1:55

Dr. Jeff Strock

Drainage Water Management to meet Agronomic and Environmental goals

1:55-2:15

Sharon K. Papiernik

Effect of surface inlet type on suspended sediment transported through a subsurface drain tile system

2:15-2:35

Laura Christianson

Denitrification bioreactors for agricultural drainage: Internal hydraulics and dynamics

 


On-Farm Tile Drainage Water Quantity and Quality Monitoring Results

Ron Wiederholt
Nutrient Management Specialist
Carrington Research Extension Center
North Dakota State University

Email: Ron.Wiederholt@ndsu.edu

An on-farm tile drainage monitoring project was initiated in 2009 and currently continues in southeast North Dakota.  The project is part of the ND Discovery Farms with intimate involvement of the landowners.  The goals of the project are to gather baseline water quantity and quality data of surface runoff and tile drain outlet flow.  The baseline data will be used by the landowners to help them with decisions regarding nutrient and sub-irrigation management.  The site being studied is a 115 acre crop field that has been primarily planted to annual row crops and small grains and is tile drained by two separate tile systems.  The soil at the site is an Embden sandy loam.  Preliminary data has shown that the two tile systems behave similarly.  The data collected in 2010 showed significant levels of nitrogen exiting the tile system and that the drainage pattern is temporal with the majority of flow occurring in March.  The data also showed that surface runoff nutrient loading is insignificant compared to tile nutrient loads.  In response to the data collected, the landowners split the field area based on the tile systems and have established perennial alfalfa over one of the tile systems and will continue their annual crop rotation over the other tile system.  Monitoring will continue for multiple years to assess the behavior of tile drainage of a perennial vs. annual cropping system.


Drainage Water Management to meet Agronomic and Environmental goals

Dr. Jeff Strock
Southwest Research and Outreach Center, Lamberton
University of Minnesota

Email: jstrock@umn.edu

Agriculture and especially crop and livestock producers are faced with many challenges. There is increasing pressure to develop technologies and strategies that contribute solutions to food and energy security and climate change and environmental quality concerns. These requirements are in addition to the usual challenges of weather, pests and uncertain markets. Intensifying cropping systems and adapting farming practices to increase productivity, mainly through more intensive nutrient management, drainage, and irrigation can result in increased production but can also result in impaired water quality and loss of biological diversity. Drainage Water Management practices are a set of agronomic, engineering, and ecological strategies that provide opportunities for targeting specific management practices at in-field, edge-of-field, or in-stream locations. The goal of Drainage Water Management is to design drainage systems that provide the benefits of drainage while minimizing negative off-site impacts on the environment. To be effective, Drainage Water Management strategies must account for the many aspects of today’s farming systems. One practice alone does not constitute Drainage Water Management nor does one strategy fit all systems. With all practices, their applicability and performance depends upon the context in which they are to be implemented. The purpose of this talk is to highlight six Drainage Water Management practices that show promise from the standpoint of water quality protection, emphasizing the array of options available to producers.


Effect of Surface Inlet Type on Suspended Sediment Transported Through a Subsurface Drain Tile System

Sharon K. Papiernik                                                  
USDA-ARS
North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory
Brookings, SD                                                                             

Email: Sharon.Papiernik@ARS.USDA.GOV                                                          

 Erik S. Krueger
University of Minnesota
Department of Soil, Water & Climate
St. Paul, MN

Gary W. Feyereisen
John M. Baker

USDA-ARS
Soil and Water Management Research Unit          
Saint Paul, MN        

Christopher D. Wente 
USDA-ARS 
North Central Soil Conservation Research Laboratory
Morris, MN

Throughout the Prairie Pothole Region, subsurface tile and surface inlets are used to remove water from low-lying or poorly-drained soils. Open inlets are being increasingly converted to buried inlets in which perforated tile is placed in a trench of rock (i.e., a French drain) and buried below a layer of soil. Compared to open inlets, buried inlets are expected to slow the flow of water through surface drains and reduce the introduction of sediment to the subsurface tile system. Sediment degrades the subsurface tile system, results in sedimentation of the receiving water, and exports sediment-bound nutrients (such as phosphorus) and other potential contaminants, so it is important to reduce the introduction of sediment through tile inlets.

We are conducting experiments to evaluate the dynamics of water and nutrient flow in two tile-drained fields. Our systems included open inlets until the fall of 2009 when they were converted to buried, French drain style inlets. We evaluated the transport of sediment in tile drainage in four consecutive years, three with open inlets and one with buried inlets. Results showed that when open inlets were present, sediment concentrations averaged 310 mg/L for the snowmelt period (February through April) and 170 mg/L during the non-snowmelt period (May through January). Maximum concentrations averaged 1450 mg/L during snowmelt and 5980 during non-snowmelt. In the first year after inlet conversion, sediment concentrations averaged 428 mg/L (maximum 4770 mg/L) during snowmelt and 34 mg/L (maximum 590 mg/L) during non-snowmelt.

Disturbance of the soil during the inlet construction may have resulted in no reduction in average or maximum sediment concentration during snowmelt in the first year. After the snowmelt period, maximum and average sediment concentrations were only 10% and 20%, respectively, of the average of the three years prior to inlet conversion. Results for the second year after inlet conversion are currently being analyzed, and sediment loads are being calculated for each year of the study. These results will indicate whether buried tile inlets decrease sediment transport via tile drainage, potentially extending the life of the subsurface tile system and decreasing the outlet concentrations of sediment and associated contaminants.


Denitrification Bioreactors for Agricultural Drainage: Internal Hydraulics and Dynamics

Laura Christianson
Dept. of Agric. and Biosyst. Engineering            
Iowa State University                                                                        

Email: laurac@iastate.edu                                                                 

Matt Helmers
Dept. of Agric. and Biosyst Engineering
Iowa State University

Denitrification bioreactors are a technology for improving agricultural drainage water quality that has gained attention in many tile drained areas over the past decade.  As most bioreactors are currently designed with long and narrow orientations, hydraulics and chemical dynamics down the longitudinal profile can be important.  However, because most bioreactor monitoring consists of sampling from the inlet and outlet, such internal activities have not been fully explored.  This work aimed to address some of these unknowns with a series of six wells installed down the longitudinal profile of a bioreactor in Northeast Iowa.  These wells were used to measure reactor solution temperature, dissolved oxygen and oxidation-reduction potential as well as to collect samples down this profile over a range of environmental conditions from May to August 2011. A pressure transducer was installed in one of the wells to document drainage hydrographs moving through the bioreactor. Lastly, a tracer test involving the wells was done to document tracer hydraulics moving internally within the reactor.  The well probe and sample data indicated there were differences between late spring and late summer flow and temperature conditions which had very important impacts upon the bioreactor’s ability to denitrify influent nitrate.  The transducer and tracer testing also provided better understanding of drainage event hydraulics and reactor design characteristics, respectively.


2:45-3:30
Refreshment Break
Student Poster Session/Judging*
Volstorff Lounge
 

Poster Author(s)

Poster Title

Jessica Luke,
Benjamin Curnow,
Bruce Bleakley,  
Todd Trooien

Fecal Coliform Monitoring At Sites Associated With Cattle Feedlots Having Vegetated Treatment Areas in Miner County and Minnehaha County, SD in 2011

Nathan Brandenburg,
Jeppe Kjaersgaard,
Ron Gelderman,
Todd Trooien

Developing BMPs to Minimize the Water Quality Impacts of Winter Manure Spreading

Melissa Floren,
Kyle Hubert,
Tim Cowman

Impact of Terrain and Land Use on Pesticide and Nutrient Concentrations in Wetlands along the Missouri River

Rajneesh Jaswal,
Emily Squillace,
Sudhir Kumar,
Ravi Kukkadapu,
Alice Dohnalkova,
Brent M. Peyton,
Nicolas Spycher,
Timothy R Ginn,
Rajesh Sani

Fate, transport, and stability of biogenic uraninite: its interactions with microbes and soil minerals

Arjun Kafle,
Nels H. Troelstrup,
Jacob Krause,
Katie Bertrand

Patterns of abundance and diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera from reference and study streams of the Northern Glaciated Plains

Christian Karels

Soil Water Content and Evapotranspiration of Corn and Switchgrass

Jeppe Kjaersgaard, Richard Allen, 
Ricardo Trezza

Mapping Evapotranspiration for Water Resources Management

Lyntausha Kuehl,
Nels H. Troelstrup

Features of a database software application and its application to manage reference collections of aquatic biota

Matt J. Lay

The Effect of Increased Streamflow on Channel Dynamics of the Lower Big Sioux River (1938-2008)

Adam Mathiowetz

 

Vegetated Treatment System Performance for Beef Confined Animal Feeding Operations

Kathleen M. Neitzert,
George L. Honeywell,
Ryan F. Thompson

Monitoring Bank Erosion on the Missouri River on the Lower Brule Reservation

Matt Schwarz,
Tom Tornow,
Bryan Schultz,
Lyman Paul

An Evaluation of Agricultural Tile Drainage Exposure and Effects to Trust Resources within Madison Wetland Management

Eric Stearns

Landscape Irrigation Using ET Based Controllers

Pravara Thanapura

Mapping Impervious Area and Open Space Using Medium and High Spatial Satellite Imagery for Runoff Index Estimation, Las Vegas, NV

Ryan F. Thompson, James J. Sanovia,
Calvin J. Cutschall,
George L. Honeywell, Charles J. Tinant

Monitoring Bank Erosion on the Missouri River on the Lower Brule Reservation with Ground-based Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)

*Only posters presented by students are entered into the student poster competition


Fecal Coliform Monitoring At Sites Associated With Cattle Feedlots Having Vegetated Treatment Areas in Miner County and Minnehaha County, SD in 2011

Bruce Bleakley 
Biology/Microbiology & Plant Science Dept.          
South Dakota State University                                                   

Email: bruce.bleakley@sdstate.edu     

Jessica Luke
Department of Biology/Microbiology
South Dakota State University                         

Todd Trooien                                                                                        
Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
South Dakota State University

Benjamin Curnow
Department of Biology/Microbiology
South Dakota State University  

Fecal coliform monitoring is important for judging suitability of surface waters for various uses.    We monitored levels of fecal coliforms at sites near beef cattle feedlots in Miner County and Minnehaha County,  SD, during 2011.  Numbers of non-toxigenic Escherichia coli were assayed using membrane filtration/ plate count methodology.  Identity of isolated colonies being E. coli was verified by transferring colonies to Chromagar plates.  Presence or absence of toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 was evaluated using a commercial kit.   Samples that were positive for E. coli 0157:H7 occurred when water levels were average to low, and there was little or no noticeable water flow or current.  If E. coli O157:H7 was present in a sample, the sample often had visible sediment.  Counts of non-toxigenic E. coli were generally very low, usually less than 100 cells/ml.  Although water flow was abundant in eastern South Dakota in 2011, only a few sampling dates at these sites yielded high E. coli counts.  Protection of the water by vegetated treatment areas (VTAs) at these sites is likely a major reason for the low counts.  


Developing BMPs to Minimize the Water Quality Impacts of Winter Manure Spreading

Nathan Brandenburg                                            Jeppe Kjaersgaard
Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering                             South Dakota Water Resources Institute
South Dakota State University                                              South Dakota State University           

Email: nathan.brandenburg@sdstate.edu                  

Todd Trooien                                                         Ron Gelderman
Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering                              Plant Science Department
South Dakota State University                                              South Dakota State University  

There are very limited options when managing agricultural waste during the winter months.  Currently the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources (SD DENR) discourages any manure spreading on frozen soils, and some of the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) farm benefit programs restrict winter spreading.  As a result, the only option for winter manure management is to store it until the following spring and summer.  Allowing some manure spreading during the winter on crop ground would decrease the amount of storage space needed and reduce the environmental risk associated with stockpiling manure.

Conducting research on this topic will provide detailed information on manure spreading during the winter.  A three-year study is being conducted where three separate watersheds located on the same field are being used for two different manure treatments and a control.  Runoff samples and volumes from snow melt and rainfall events are being collected to monitor the fecal coliform bacteria, nutrients, and sediments leaving the watersheds.  Flumes and stage recorders are used to measure the runoff volume.  Automatic water samplers are used to collect samples of runoff events.  Climatic data were also being collected to determine the climatic effect in the watersheds.  Automatic and manual rain gauges are used to measure the amount of rainfall.  Soil temperature sensors are installed at three depths and used to determine when soil freezes and thaws.  The data collected is being used to assess the environmental risk of spreading manure during the winter, while developing best management practices (BMPs) relative to location, placement and timing of manure applications.

Data has been collected throughout the spring and summer of 2011.  Currently the data is being analyzed to form the first year results.  The data analysis and results will be presented as a poster.


Impact of Terrain and Land Use on Pesticide and Nutrient Concentrations in Wetlands along the Missouri River

Melissa Floren                                                        
University of South Dakota                                                       

Email: Melissa.Floren@usd.edu   

Kyle Hubert                         
University of South Dakota

Tim Cowman                                                                                         
University of South Dakota         

Several wetlands located along the 59-mile segment of the Missouri National Recreational River in southeast South Dakota and northeast Nebraska were sampled for pesticides and nutrients. The purpose of the sampling was to determine if there is a correlation between pesticide and nutrient levels in wetlands and terrain and land use characteristics surrounding the wetland. Ten wetland sites were chosen for sampling. Six are located in South Dakota and four in Nebraska. We chose what appeared to be permanent wetlands located on the floodplain, within one-half mile of the Missouri River, and located within or close to agricultural land. Four sites were tested for the pesticides alachlor, atrazine, metolachlor, metribuzin and glyphosate. All ten samples were also tested for nitrate and phosphorus. At this time there has been one sampling event in July of 2011, another is planned for September of 2011.


Fate, Transport, and Stability of Biogenic Uraninite: Its Interactions with Microbes and Soil Minerals

Rajneesh Jaswal, Rajesh Sani, , Emily Squillace & Sudhir Kumar 
Dept. of Chemical & Biological Engineering        
South Dakota School of Mines & Technology                  

Email: rajneesh.jaswal@mines.sdsmt.edu

Timothy R. Ginn
Geochemistry Dept., Earth Science Division
Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory

Ravi Kukkadapu & Alice Dohnalkova 
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Richland, WA                                                                                    

Nicolas Spycher
Dept. of Civil & Enviro Engineering
University of California

Brent M. Payton                                                                                       
Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering 
Montana State University                                                      

Uranium (U) contamination commonly exists in surface and ground water, soil, and sediment at many sites worldwide. A promising strategy for in-situ remediation of subsurface U contamination is through facilitating biostimulation of metal-reducing indigenous bacterial species resulting in dissimilatory reduction of soluble U(VI) to less soluble U(IV) - uraninite (UO2).Our group’s recent results, however, show that a significant mass fraction of bioreduced U (35-60%) exists as a mobile phase, and raises several fundamental questions regarding long-term U reclamation stewardship.  What fraction of biogenic uraninite appears to be soluble or in suspension with U associated with  i) periplasmic and cytoplasmic regions of bacterial cells, ii) the surfaces of cells, iii) the aqueous phase, and iv) on colloids (e.g., iron sulfide nanoparticles).  In U-contaminated sites, what controls the distribution of uraninite in mobile vs. immobile (mineral) phases? To address these basic science questions, we characterized biogenic U(IV) in batch systems produced by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20.  We also used a Fe(III)(hydr)oxide mineral (hematite) and quartz (α-SiO2, 212-300 mm) as model redox-sensitive and -insensitive aquifer minerals, respectively.  Size fractions of U in various batch experiments were obtained by ultrafiltration technique using Nanosep devices. Samples of unfiltered, filtered oxidized, and unfiltered oxidized were analyzed for U(VI) content using a Kinetic Phosphorescence Analyzer. TEM results showed that uraninite particles were present both as adsorbed on the cell surfaces and inside the cells. These results improved our understanding of the fate and transport of bioreduced uranium, and would be applicable in the assessment of long-term sequestration of U in environment.


Patterns of Abundance and Diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera from Reference and Study Streams of the Northern Glaciated Plains

Arjun Kafle                                                         
Dept. of Natural Resource Management               
South Dakota State University                                             
Email: Arjun.Kafle@sdstate.edu

Jacob Krause
Dept. of Natural Resource Management
South Dakota State University

Katie Bertrand    
Dept. of Natural Resource Management
South Dakota State University

Nels H. Troelstrup
Dept. of Natural Resource Management
South Dakota State University                                            

Intensive agricultural development within the Northern Glaciated Plains may alter communities and impair aquatic life uses. High loading of organic pollutants and suspended solids are common water quality concerns to water resource managers. Ephemeroptera (E), Plecoptera (P) and Trichoptera (T) are generally sensitive to hypoxia and deposition of sediment.  The objectives of this study were to characterize richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity of EPT from 27 stream sites falling in four different quality classes: reference, good, poor and random. Stream sampling sites were all located in the Northern Glaciated Plains ecoregion of eastern South Dakota. State sampling protocols were followed for collection and processing of invertebrate samples and measurement of dissolved oxygen and substrate particle size during the period June to August 2010. Total EPT abundance ranged from 8 to 5357 from all sites, but no significant difference was observed among stream classes. At the genus taxonomic level, richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity and Shannon evenness were all higher in reference and good streams than in bad and random streams. Percent fine sediments was not significant predictor of any EPT metrics. However, a distinct threshold relationship was observed between Ephemeroptera metrics and dissolved oxygen at 5 mg/L. In addition, Plecoptera were only collected from reference sites. Caenis and Hexagenia were found in moderate abundance from all stream classes whereas Stenacron, Fallceon, Stenonema, and Cinygmula were found only from good sites. Our result suggests that EPT richness and evenness are sensitive to hypoxia resulting from high organic loading. The 5 mg/L threshold we observed is consistent with state water quality criteria designed to support warmwater fisheries.


Soil Water Content and Evapotranspiration of Corn and Switchgrass

Christian Karels
Department of Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering
South Dakota State University

Email: christian.karels@jacks.sdstate.edu

Relative water use of crops used for biofuel feedstock influence the water balance in the landscape. This study shows the estimation of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) for corn and switchgrass using weather data and also determines if soil water availability has had an effect on crop growth and yield. The volumetric water content (θv) was measured with a Neutron Attenuation Moisture Meter at depths of one, two, three, four, and five feet, taken every one to two weeks. Landscape position treatments were shoulder, back, and toe slope locations. An estimation of ETc using the ASCE standard equation was made from collecting weather data on site. Seasonal Total ETc for 2010 was calculated for corn and switchgrass at Colman, Flandreau, Warner sites. The seasonal total ETc values for corn are 547.4mm, 522.6mm, and 557.9mm respectively. Switchgrass showed seasonal total ETc values of 500.4mm, 475.6mm, and 510.1mm respectively. Soil water measurements showed ample stored soil early in the growing season. The data showed that soil water availability did not limit growth and yield of the crops.


Mapping Evapotranspiration for Water Resources Management

Jeppe Kjaersgaard
Water Resources Institute 
South Dakota State University 

Email: jeppe.kjaersgaard@sdstate.edu     

Rick G  Allen
Kimberly R&E Center
University of Idaho

Ricardo Trezza                                                                                      
Kimberly R&E Center
University of Idaho

Application of remote sensing algorithms solving the energy balance using high resolution satellite imagery has proven useful for establishing estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) for large populations of fields and water users. ET is generally estimated in energy balance processes as a residual of the energy balance as:

                                                                    LE = Rn - G - H                                                         (1)

where LE is the latent energy consumed by ET, Rn is net radiation flux density at the surface, G is heat flux density into the ground and H is sensible heat flux density into the air. 

Models that solve the energy balance to estimate ET include Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC). In METRIC, Rn is estimated by solving the radiation balance. G is estimated as a function of surface temperature, net radiation and a vegetation index. METRIC utilizes an innovative Calibration using Inverse Modeling at Extreme Conditions (CIMEC) method for estimating sensible heat flux by inverse modeling of the near surface temperature gradient (dT) for each image pixel based on a relationship between the dT and radiometric surface temperature at two “anchor” pixels. The advantage of the CIMIC approach to develop the dT vs. Ts relationship is that many biases in energy balance components are factored out, including those in Ts.  The anchor pixels ideally represent the conditions of an agricultural field having full and actively transpiring vegetation cover and a bare agricultural field having no vegetation cover and little residual evaporation.

The METRIC procedure utilizes the alfalfa based reference evapotranspiration ETr to establish the energy balance at the cold pixel, thus establishing a ground reference for the satellite image based ET estimate. ETr is calculated outside of METRIC using hourly (or shorter) weather data from a weather station preferably located toward the center of the study area. The use of ETr is generally effective in tying down the energy balance calibration, especially in arid and semiarid climates having advection. The use of ETr for calibration and extrapolation of ET to longer time periods makes the METRIC process congruent with traditional ETr based estimation methods.

 

Features of a Database Software Application and its Application to Manage Reference Collections of Aquatic Biota

 Lyntausha C. Kuehl                                  Nels H. Troelstrup, Jr.
Dept. of Natural Resource Management                 Dept. of Natural Resource Management
South Dakota State University                                 South Dakota State University

Email: lckuehl@jacks.sdstate.edu                                                                             

 Aquatic macroinvertebrates serve as important indicators of ecosystem water quality and habitat in both lentic and lotic environments. However, the occurrence and distribution of macroinvertebrate species in South Dakota is poorly known. A physical collection of voucher specimens and SPECIFY database was constructed to support water quality monitoring and future research studies of macroinvertebrates in South Dakota. Specimens were submitted from state, private, and university projects from throughout South Dakota. Taxonomic, ecological, and locality metadata, standard digital photomicrographs, and measurements were gathered and entered for each voucher to a SPECIFY database. SPECIFY is a comprehensive software program that allows for the tracking and organization of accessions, photographs, collection objects, reports, data files, loans, and ecological information. The database also features customizable forms with data entry fields allowing the user to design and save single- or multi-parameter queries. Other elements of the database include hierarchical trees of specimen taxonomy, geography, and storage, reports, labels, and basic statistics on collection holdings. Data may be imported or exported between SPECIFY and MS Excel or CSV files. SPECIFY also interfaces with Google Earth and GEOLocate for the visualization of distribution maps. To date 1,827 vouchers have been entered into the database, representing 261 genera across 173 localities. Over 5,000 vouchers totaling approximately 30,373 individual specimens from 28 separate collections have been received for addition to the database and new collections continue to be submitted. The database is in the process of becoming available online for query by researchers and future collectors. Current efforts are focused on creation of a multi-collection database for natural history collections at SDSU.

 


The Effect of Increased Streamflow on Channel Dynamics of the Lower Big Sioux River (1938-2008)

Matt J. Ley
Department of Biology
University of South Dakota

Email: Matt.Ley@USD.edu                                                                            

Rivers can often be viewed as a report card of the drainage basin as the effects of surrounding landuses manifest themselves in the overall health and functionality of the riverine ecosystem.  Using the indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHA) statistical software, we found that a shift in the hydrologic regime of the Big Sioux River has occurred since 1970 resulting in a 112% increase in mean annual flow as well as a 77% increase in base flow.  In addition, the frequency of high flow events over 91 cms (10% exceedence flow for 1928-2008) has increased by 65% over that same time period.  To observe the potential effect of this increased streamflow on channel dynamics, we examined 8 historic photo dates (1938, 1950, 1962, 1976, 1984, 1996, 2002 and 2008) along a 220 km (river km) stretch of the lower Big Sioux River (entire South Dakota/Iowa border).  We assessed differences in channel location and morphology between dates and quantified the total amount of channel change (both lateral migration and planform adjustment) occurring during the 70 year period using ArcGIS 10.0.  Our results indicated a 39% increase in channel area, a 4% decrease in channel length (approximately 9 km) and a 5% decrease in sinuosity resulting in an overall wider, shorter and straighter river.  Increased channel area appears to be correlated with increased discharge (R2= 0.61) and mean migration rates (m/year) appear to be negatively correlated with the increased discharge (R2= 0.59).  Reasons for this observed increase in streamflow and the resulting channel adjustments are hypothesized to include changes in streamflow-to-precipitation (Q:P) ratios, increasing annual row crop production (corn and soybean) and greater application of agricultural tile drainage throughout the basin.  Overall, these results may shed light on how the Big Sioux watershed will respond to future climate changes and continued landscape alterations under current management practices.     

 

 


Vegetated Treatment System Performance for Beef Confined Animal Feeding Operations

 Adam Mathiowetz
Department of Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering
South Dakota State University

Email: Adam.Mathiowetz@sdstate.edu                                                                                  

Vegetated Treatment Systems (VTS’s) are used as an alternative method for managing runoff from beef feedlots.  The performance of a VTS has been studied on two different Confined Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO’s), one in Minnehaha County, South Dakota and one in Stevens County, Minnesota.  The Minnehaha County VTS has been studied for two years and the Stevens County VTS for three years.  The runoff from the feedlots was contained in a sediment basin where the total volume of runoff was measured and samples of the runoff taken before release to the vegetated treatment area (VTA).  The research has shown that a VTS can successfully manage the runoff from a CAFO beef feedlot.

   

Monitoring Bank Erosion on the Missouri River on the Lower Brule Reservation

Kathleen M. Neitzert                             George L. Honeywell
U.S. Geological Survey                                      Environmental Protection Office, Lower Brule Sioux Tribe

Email: kmneitze@usgs.gov                               Email: ghoneywell@lbst-epo.org                                             

Ryan F. Thompson
U.S. Geological Survey

Email: rcthomps@usgs.gov

The Lower Brule Sioux Tribe (LBST) is very concerned about bank erosion on the Missouri River on the Lower Brule Reservation in western South Dakota. The Missouri River and the two lakes formed by the dams, Lake Sharpe and Lake Francis Case, form the northern and eastern boundary of the LBST Reservation. Shoreline erosion has occurred along a large portion of this border. LBST estimates that the Reservation is losing shoreline in some locations at a rate of approximately 8 feet per year.

To address these concerns, the LBST Environmental Protection Office’s Water Quality Program, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oglala Lakota College, is monitoring a portion of the Missouri River’s shoreline for bank erosion. The study area for this project consists of a 7-mile stretch of shoreline with major bank loss. This area was chosen because of the high rate of bank loss and because the LBST Rural Water plant’s intake location is within the study area.

  The physical changes that occur along the Missouri River bank will be monitored utilizing the following technological efforts at varied times during the 2-year study:

  • Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) global positioning satellite equipment to establish precise shoreline location;
  • ground-based Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) to map banks at selected locations; and
  • flights using a small Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) to monitor the changes in bank erosion for the 7-mile stretch along the shoreline.

  RTK data are used to establish the shoreline location at any point during the study, LiDAR data will provide high-resolution surface elevation data, and UAS flights will be used as a reconnaissance and surveillance tool to capture video and still pictures. Results from each of these efforts will be analyzed to investigate the location and rate of erosion. The LBST will use the results to assess the need for possible changes in the potential permitting of water resources.  


An Evaluation of Agricultural Tile Drainage Exposure and Effects to Trust Resources within Madison Wetland Management

Matt Schwarz, Tom Tornow, Bryan Schultz and Lyman Paul 
U.S Fish and Wildlife Service
South Dakota Field Office

Email: matt_schwarz@fws.gov

There are approximately 4.4 million acres of wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of the Dakotas that provide essential habitat for wildlife, improve water quality and provide flood control benefits.  However, these wetlands have a history of being at risk to drainage and degradation from agricultural practices.  This risk has recently increased due to a spike in the number of newly proposed agricultural tile drainage projects.  Tile drain installation, a common practice in Iowa and Minnesota, has caused numerous detrimental effects to wetlands including wetland loss, altered wetland hydrology downstream of tile, and water quality degradation.  Therefore, a pilot survey was initiated this spring to measure concentrations of nitrate in Waterfowl Production Areas (WPAs) managed by Madison Wetland Management District.  Nitrate concentrations (n = 35) were significantly greater on WPA sites that directly received tile drainage outfalls than those that did not and frequently exceed benchmarks for protection of aquatic life that range from 2 - 5 milligrams per liter (mg/L).  

 

 Landscape Irrigation Using ET Based Controllers

Eric Stearns
Department of Agriculture and Biosystems Engineering

Email: eric.stearns@jacks.sdstate.edu

Water is applied to lawns in many urban areas around the country.  There are many different options for lawn irrigation controllers.  In this study, ETwater controllers were tested from 2008 through 2011 to see if they are more efficient than a standard time based controller.  ET based irrigation controllers were installed at twenty different sites in Sioux Falls.  These sites were broken into subsequent categories of 100% replacement of usable water, 70% of usable water and 50% of usable water. The city of Sioux Falls reported water usage for each site during the months of May through August.  These months were used because these are the months that irrigation water is most commonly applied. Pictures were taken at each site and the turf quality was graded on a scale of 1-5 with 5 being the best.  The water usage and the turf quality of the ET based controller was then compared to the water usage and turf quality of the standard time based controller. Results from 2011 will be presented at the 2011 East Dakota Water Conference.  


 Mapping Impervious Area and Open Space Using Medium and High Spatial Satellite Imagery for Runoff Index Estimation, Las Vegas, NV

Pravara Thanapura
South Dakota State University
Email: pthanapura@gmail.com

Runoff index is a critical input in the most widely used single-parameter rainfall-runoff methods for urban storm runoff calculation: the curve number (CN) for the Natural Resources Conservation Service Curve-Number (NRCS-CN) method and the runoff coefficient (C) for the rational method.  Its function is based on land use/land cover (i.e., impervious areas and open space [pervious cover]), hydrologic soil group, and/or slope.  The goal of this research was to investigate the utility of medium and high spatial satellite imagery together with the peer-reviewed and published land use/land cover classification approach of Thanapura et al., in 2007 for mapping the impervious and open space information—that is required for estimating runoff index values over a wide range of various land use/land cover surfaces in urban areas of Las Vegas, NV, one of the fastest growing cities in the United States.  This published mapping technique, as tested in Las Vegas, allows for updating such information in a timely manner.  This, in turn, makes it possible for efficient and effective estimates of urban storm runoff worldwide which could help prevent uncertain local and downstream flooding and potentially reduce loss of life and damage to property caused by unusual rainfall events.

This work is supported and partially awarded by the NASA Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) in SD under Award No. NCC5-588 (Sub-Award No. SDSMT-SDSU 02-05)


MonitoringBank Erosion on the Missouri River on the Lower Brule Reservation with Ground-based Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)

Ryan F. Thompson                                                James J. Sanovia
U.S. Geological Survey                                                        Oglala Lakota College

Email: rcthomps@usgs.gov                                                  Email: makowapi@gmail.com

Calvin J. Cutschall                                               Kathleen M. Neitzert
Oglala Lakota College                                                          U.S. Geological Survey

Email: ccutschall9505@olc.edu                                           Email: kmneitze@usgs.gov

George L. Honeywell                                            Charles J. Tinant
Environmental Protection Office                                           Oglala Lakota College
Lower Brule Sioux Tribe

Email: ghoneywell@lbst-epo.org                                          Email: charlesjasontinant@gmail.com

The Lower Brule Sioux Tribe (LBST) is very concerned about bank erosion on the Missouri River on the Lower Brule Reservation in western South Dakota. The Missouri River and the two lakes formed by the dams, Lake Sharpe and Lake Francis Case, form the northern and eastern boundary of the LBST Reservation. Shoreline erosion has occurred along a large portion of this border.

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the LBST Environmental Protection Office’s Water Quality Program and the Oglala Lakota College (OLC) of the Oglala Sioux Tribe, is investigating the current physical properties of the Missouri River banks in a 7-mile stretch of shoreline near the community of Lower Brule. The physical changes that occur along the Missouri River shoreline will be monitored during the 2-year study period to provide data on the rate of erosion at selected locations.

Sites representing a variety of bank conditions were selected at five locations near Lower Brule. Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) global positioning satellite equipment was used to establish precise locations of primary and secondary reference marks at each site. Also, while developing the sites, “bankshots” (RTK readings at the current bank location) were recorded. These readings and aerial imagery are being used to investigate the erosion that took place before this study began, but higher resolution information is required to accurately quantify localized bank-erosion rates.

Ground-based Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) is a technique to obtain precise land-surface elevation data.
The OLC and USGS used a High-Definition Surveying Scanning (HDS3000) system by Leica Geosystems™ with Cyclone 5.1 scanning and point processing software applications1 to scan the sites during the winter of 2011. LiDAR will be used again in 2012. The results will provide high-resolution data to record the amount of bank erosion on the Missouri River at selected sites on the Lower Brule Reservation by measuring the change in shoreline between the winters of 2011 and 2012.


3:30-5:00
Concurrent Session 4 – Water Management
 Concurrent Session 5 – Urban Water

Volstorff Ballroom 101A and 101B

 

 

Concurrent Session 4
Water Management

Volstorff Ballroom 101A
Moderator: Todd Trooien

Concurrent Session 5
Urban Water

Volstorff Ballroom 101B
Moderator: Tyler Hengen

3:30-3:50

Jay Gilbertson

County Management of Rural Drainage in South Dakota

Jason Love

Water-quality trading within the central Big Sioux River

3:50-4:10

Xinhua Jia

Controlled Drainage and Subirrigation Effect on Crop Production and Water Quality

Jason Love

MPCA’s watershed based approach and the role of watershed models

4:10-4:30

Boris Shmagin

Missouri River Watershed: the Object for Hydrological Studies and Uncertainty of Models

Tyler Hengen

Life cycle assessment analysis of engineered stormwater control methods common to urban South Dakota watersheds

4:30-4:50

Dennis Todey

Impacts of Precipitation Changes on the Large Scale Water Balance in the Northern Great Plains.

Sudhir Kumar

A green approach for industrial herbal waste management and its bioremediation

 


 County Management of Rural Drainage in South Dakota

Jay Gilberson
East Dakota Water Development District
Brookings, SD

Email: edwdd@brookings.net 

In an effort to address public concern over escalating disputes between landowners, the South Dakota Legislature enacted legislation in 1985 that enabled county regulation of rural drainage.  The legislation, now embodied in South Dakota Codified Law 46A-10A and -11, provides a framework by which counties can create and maintain official controls (ordinances) to manage rural drainage.  For those counties that opt to become involved, the law provides for the issuance of drainage permits, guidance and minimum standards for the evaluation of potential drainage activities (including specific language on impacts to adjacent properties), processes by which multi-parcel/landowner drainage projects are handled, and procedures for dispute resolution.

Prior to 1985, drainage disputes were resolved in the courts.  Over time, resolution of these disputes established what is referred to as “case law,” in effect a set of precedents for how drainage matters would be assessed by the courts.  Many of the case law precedents are  incorporated in SDCL 46A-10A as the criteria against which proposed drainage activities are to be evaluated.  However, the legislation introduced additional criteria which were not part of prior court actions.

There are currently 14 counties, all in the eastern side of the state, that have enacted formal drainage management programs.  While individual county drainage ordinances are unique, each share many common elements.

At present, several counties are exploring the option of abandoning their drainage ordinances.  The concern is that drainage permits are often issued without a sufficiently rigorous assessment of the likely impacts, and they consequently represent a significant liability risk.  Efforts to address these concerns are likely to be a topic in upcoming legislative sessions.

 


MPRCA’s Watershed Based Approach and the Role of Watershed Models

Jason Love                                                         Seth Kenner
Vice President                                                                    Staff Engineer
RESPEC Water & Natural Resources                                RESPEC Water & Natural Resources

Email: Jason.love@respec.com                                         Email: seth.kenner@respec.com

Cindie McCutcheon
Staff Engineer
RESPEC Water & Natural Resources

Email: cindie.mccutcheon@respec.com

 A recent analysis of the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concluded that states are confronted with a significant increase in the number of TMDLs that need to be developed in the next decade.  The majority of these TMDLS will be more complex than those developed to date, and the level of resources and funding are not anticipated to increase.  EPA concluded that one strategy to address the maximum number of impairments in the most expeditious and cost-effective manner was developing TMDLs using a holistic watershed scale approach.

The state of Minnesota is currently an example state faced with the aforementioned challenges.  About 40 percent of Minnesota’s waters are impaired.   The state adopted a watershed-based approach to monitoring and assessment as recommended by EPA.  The state’s strategy is based on synchronizing monitoring and assessment, TMDL development, and restoration and protection on the major watershed scale (8-digit-level watershed).  TMDL studies will begin 2–3 years following completion of the assessment.  As part of the TMDL assessment, a watershed model will be developed for each 8-digit-level watershed to support regulatory and planning initiatives such as:

  • TMDL Development
  • Permit Development for Point Sources and Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4)
  • Watershed Planning (Best Management Practices and Water-Quality Trading)
  • Waterbody Compliance With Nutrient Water-Quality Standards

In this paper, the development of a comprehensive watershed model application for the Sauk and Crow Watersheds just west of the Minneapolis and St. Paul is presented. This study was funded by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA).  The modeling package selected for this application is the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF).  HSPF is a comprehensive watershed model of hydrology and water quality and is considered a premier, high-level model among those currently available for comprehensive watershed assessments.

KEYWORDS:  Watershed Approach, Total Maximum Daily Load, Water-Quality Trading, Best Management Practices, Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF).


Controlled Drainage and Subirrigation Effect on Crop Production and Water Quality

Xinhua Jia, Thomas F. Scherer                             Thomas M. DeSutter
North Dakota State University                                                North Dakota State University

Email: Xinhua.Jia@ndsu.edu

Zhulu Lin                                                                Dean D. Steele
North Dakota State University                                                North Dakota State University                                                                                                

 In 2008-2010, a research project was conducted using controlled drainage (CD) and subirrigation (SI) to improve crop production and water quality. The experimental site was located near the intersection of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota. The field size was 44 ha, of which 22 ha was undrained (UD), 11 ha had CD, and 11 ha had CD+SI. All water from the field drained to a lift station. The lift station sump structure was used as the outlet for the CD events and the inlet for the irrigation water for the SI applications. Corn was planted in 2008 and 2009, and soybean was planted in 2010. For all three years, the crop yield was 8% higher in the CD+SI than that in the UD. Water quality was monitored at the outlet structure and in the groundwater monitoring wells within the field. Water quality parameters chloride (Cl-), electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and sodium content (Na+) for salt related, and orthophosphate (PO4-P), ammonium (NH4-N), nitrite and nitrate (NOx-N), Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and total nitrogen (TN) for nutrient related considerations were compared and evaluated. The greatest water quality difference was found at the outlet, while a significant difference (P<0.001) between the CD water drained from the field and the SI water from the groundwater used for subirrigation was found for all ten water quality parameters. The average EC, TDS, SAR, Na+, PO4-P, NOx-N, and TN were significantly different among different well cluster locations compared to water treatments, indicating that the variations were caused by soil heterogeneity.

 

Water-Quality Trading within the Central Big Sioux River

Jason Love                                                  Jared Oswald
Vice President                                                            Manager
RESPEC Water & Natural Resources                       RESPEC Water & Natural Resources

Email: jason.love@respec.com                                 Email: jared.oswald@respec.com

 A major challenge faced by decision makers within the Central Big Sioux River Watershed (CBSRW) is how to select the best combination of practices to implement, among the many options available, which result in the most cost-effective, achievable, and practical management strategy possible.  A watershed-scale, decision-support framework that is based on cost optimization is needed to support government and local watershed planning agencies as they coordinate watershed-scale investments to achieve needed improvements in water quality.  This framework would assist in developing a water-quality master plan which will include identifying management practices to achieve pollutant reductions under a municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4) stormwater permit coupled with nonpoint best management practices (BMPs) that are optimized for both cost and water-quality effectiveness.

RESPEC developed a watershed model using the Hydrologic Simulation Program – Fortran (HSPF) code that is capable of predicting flow, sediment loading, and bacterial loading of the watershed and associated stream bed and bank scour, as well as the transport of sediment and bacteria within the Big Sioux River and its major tributaries from Dell Rapids to Brandon (excluding Skunk Creek).  This model is being expanded to include Skunk Creek and other contributing areas within the implementation project that are not currently in the model application domain.  A decision support framework will then be developed to facilitate prioritization and placement of BMPs, which will include a water-quality trading component.  The decision support framework will consist of a Geographic Information System (GIS) that allows for the determination of BMP site suitability and an HSPF model application to simulate the transport and fate of pollutants and the effectiveness of BMPs to improve water quality in the impaired reaches.  Ultimately, there are an infinite number of combinations of BMPs that could be implemented to achieve the required pollutant reductions. An optimization module will be integrated into the decision support framework that will facilitate the process of evaluating and selecting a combination of BMP options that achieves the pollutant-reduction goals of the CBSRW at optimum cost to the stakeholders. 

 


Missouri River Watershed: The Object for Hydrological Studies and Uncertainty of Models

Boris Shmagin
Research Associate
Water Resources Institute & Dept. of Ag & Biosystems Engineering
South Dakota State University

Email: boris.shmagin@sdstate.edu

The longest river (2540 mi) and the second largest drainage area (529 346 mi2) in North America is the Missouri River and it is one of the most interesting hydrological objects to study. The issue of uncertainty is the basis for any application of knowledge (“Uncertainty is an attribute of information.” Zadeh, 2005) and has to be one of the main tasks in studies of the Earth’s systems. Knowledge about natural systems (watershed in our case) may be obtained only by the analysis of the empirical (instrumental) data (observations). Principle of Uncertainty is the basic law in Physics. In Hydrology, the Uncertainty starts from the unveiling of the research task by the researcher. The main source of the uncertainty comes from the “extraction of the natural system” (unit’s boundaries) for modeling of that system and from limitations in the data representing both time and space variability. The watershed has the formal determined boundary and this property places hydrology in the center of regional climate research. The uncertainty is considered in context of time and space with the use of Cybernetic Model of the Watershed (Shmagin, 1997) and described on the basis of location of the system in the coordinates on the Earth. The mathematical model does not have criteria to verify itself (Gödel's incompleteness theorems) and therefore multitask and multiscale studies have to be completed. The data analysis for the Upper Missouri River provides a multi-scaled description of the structure of the system of river watersheds inside the area of study, their interaction with climate characteristics and the basis for the area regionalization. The formulation of the uncertainty for the watershed helps to explain the scope of practical applications to be developed and the tasks to study, communicate and educate the public/communities about water resources and environmental issues, including extreme events like drought/flooding. Science is one of many components of life but the scientist is the only holder of the “truth” and a creator of formal knowledge of the nature. “… data analysis assists in the formulation of a model … A model is merely your reflection of reality and, like probability, it describes neither you nor the world, but only a relationship between you and that world” (From Lindley, “Principles of Statistics”, 2006).

 


    Life Cycle Assessment Analysis of Engineered Stormwater Control Methods Common to Urban South Dakota Watersheds

Tyler Hengen                                                           Dr. James Stone
BS Environmental Engineering Student                                   Associate Professor
South Dakota School of Mines                                                 South Dakota School of Mines

Email: tyler.hengen@mines.sdsmt.edu                                Email: james.stone@sdsmt.edu 

Sustainability, or design for the environment, has become a significant component of governmental and industrial design practice.  An important component of the sustainable design processes is the determination of life cycle assessment (LCA) impacts associated with a given product or processes.  LCA allows environmental impacts to be determined using a “cradle to grave” or “cradle to cradle” prospective following International Organization for Standardization (ISO 14040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006) methodology.   LCA modeling was completed to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with the implementation of various stormwater best management practices (BMP’s) common for urban South Dakota watersheds.  While BMP selection is critical for meeting EPA Phase II stormwater treatment criteria, historically BMP selection has focused on treatment performance and economic considerations, with minimal consideration towards BMP life cycle environmental costs.  This presentation will summarize our LCA evaluations for urban stormwater runoff treatment using porous detention and sand filtration technology, and will highlight variations in LCA impacts associated with “green” BMP offsets such as porous asphalt, vegetated swales, and rain gardens. 

 


Impacts of Precipitation Changes on the Large Scale Water Balance in the Northern Great Plains

Dennis Todey 
South Dakota State Climatologist
South Dakota State University
dennis.todey@sdstate.edu

Recent interest in drainage in South Dakota has been associated with a longer term trend in the northern Great Plains.  This longer trend has seen an overall increase in precipitation in much of the state, changes in timing of precipitation throughout the year and reduced evaporative demand in the atmosphere.  This has combined to put more moisture in fields, enlarge confined basin lakes and lead to increased flood impacts statewide.  The most direct impact has been in eastern South Dakota, but is apparent many places across the northern Great Plains.  We will review some of the changes in precipitation, locations and timing in the areas and talk about the potential impacts and what this means for future considerations.

 

A Green Approach for Industrial Herbal Waste Management and its Bioremediation

 Sudhir Kumar                                                     Mamta Kumari
Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering                   Dept. of Biotechnology & Bioinformatics
South Dakota School of Mines & Technology                    Jaypee University of Information Technology  
                                                                                           Solan 173215 Himachal Pradesh, India
Email: Sudhir.Kumar@sdsmt.edu                                                                                                               

Tushar Kalia                                                      Rajinder Singh Chauhan
School of Chemical Engineering & Analytical Science     Dept. of Biotechnology & Bioinformatics University of Manchester                                                  Jaypee University of Information Technology Manchester, UK                                                                Solan 173215 Himachal Pradesh, India

Ravikanth K                                                      Rajesh K Sani
Ayurvet Limited                                                                Dept.of Chem. and Bio. Engineering
Baddi, Solan 173205                                                       South Dakota School of Mines & Technology Himachal Pradesh, India                                                                                                                        

The current study is first of its kind using industrial herbal waste as a substrate for the production of commercially viable products. Industrial herbal waste comprised of various medicinal plants as lignocellulosic waste discarded by Ayurvet industry located in northern part of India. About 1.0 tons daily release of herbal waste by the industry warrants an urgent need of its safe and quick disposal without clogging water channels or excessively increasing organic load of soil. To address this issue, waste was used for vermicompost production using Eudrilus eugeniae as species of earthworm. Results showed a significant degradation in total organic carbon (TOC) and increase in nitrogen content. Less than 20:1 C:N ratio was obtained which showed a high degree of mineralization & vermistablization of herbal industrial waste. Experiments were done to check the effect of vermicompost on two plants – Tagetes (Marigold) & Pisum sativum (Pea) and it was found that vermicompost made using blend of industrial herbal waste and cow dung (1:1) significantly increased the growth & productivity of both the plants in comparison with vermicompost made from cow dung as sole substrate (as control). Depending on the heterogeneity of the waste it was also used as substrate for biogas production in a compact and cost effective biogas plant. Maximum amount of biogas produced using waste as feedstock was 0.440m3 which was able to generate cooking gas for 2hr. Spent slurry was used as liquid biofertilzer leading towards our goal of zero waste technology without contaminating water and soil ecosystems. At present, we are planning to establish a biogas plant in Rapid City using Municipal Solid waste and pine wood chips for generating electricity as a step towards green approach and environmental sustainability.

 


 

 

Thank You

 

The organizing committee would like to thank you for attending the 2011 Eastern South Dakota Water Conference. We hope you have enjoyed our panel discussion, special speakers, oral presentations and poster session.

We now need your help. We will begin working on the 2012 Eastern South Dakota Water Conference shortly.  This is where you can help:

  1. Identify and recruit speakers – If you know someone who would be a great plenary speaker or banquet speaker, bring them to the attention of the committee. If this person is selected, be willing to contact them and see if they would be interested in attending our conference next year.

 

  1. Volunteer for being a moderator – We are always looking for people to help with the conference.

 

  1. Volunteer to become a part of the organizing committee – If you could spare some time to help with next year’s conference, we would greatly appreciate it.

 

  1. Suggest a theme or title for next year’s conference – What items are important concerning water in Eastern South Dakota?

  

If you have suggestions for any of the above items, please let me know:  

Trista Koropatnicki
Water Resources Institute
South Dakota State University
SAE 211, Box 2120
Brookings, SD  57007
Phone:  605-688-4910
Fax:  605-688-4917

Email: Trista.Koropatnicki@sdstate.edu